Protective Relaying: Theory and Applications

Ön Kapak
CRC Press, 9 Eyl 2003 - 432 sayfa
5 Eleştiriler
Targeting the latest microprocessor technologies for more sophisticated applications in the field of power system short circuit detection, this revised and updated source imparts fundamental concepts and breakthrough science for the isolation of faulty equipment and minimization of damage in power system apparatus. The Second Edition clearly describes key procedures, devices, and elements crucial to the protection and control of power system function and stability. It includes chapters and expertise from the most knowledgeable experts in the field of protective relaying, and describes microprocessor techniques and troubleshooting strategies in clear and straightforward language.
 

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İçindekiler

Introduction and General Philosophies
1
21 AnalogDigitalNumerical
2
31 Design Criteria
3
32 Factors Influencing Relay Performance
4
41 System Configuration
5
45 Maximum Loads Transformer Data and Impedances
6
52 RackMounted Relays
7
6 CIRCUITBREAKER CONTROL
8
4 SAMPLE CHECKS FOR APPLYING TRANSFORMER DIFFERENTIAL RELAYS
173
42 Checks for Multiwinding Banks
178
43 Modern Microprocessor Relay
180
52 Ground Source on Delta Side
181
53 ThreePhase Banks of SinglePhase Units
183
55 Overexcitation Protection of a Generator Transformer Unit
184
56 SuddenPressure Relay SPR
185
57 Overcurrent and Backup Protection
186

7 COMPARISON OF SYMBOLS
9
Technical Tools of the Relay Engineer Phasors Polarity and Symmetrical Components
11
22 Circuit Diagram Notation for Voltage
12
24 Phasor Diagram Notation
13
25 Phase Rotation vs Phasor Rotation
15
33 Characteristics of Directional Relays
16
34 Connections of Directional Units to Three Phase Power Systems
17
4 FAULTS ON POWER SYSTEMS
18
42 Characteristics of Faults
20
5 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS
21
52 System Neutral
23
54 Sequence Impedances
24
55 Sequence Networks
26
56 Sequence Network Connections and Voltages
27
57 Network Connections for Fault and General Unbalances
28
58 Sequence Network Reduction
29
59 Example of Fault Calculation on a Loop Type Power System
32
510 Phase Shifts Through Transformer Banks
37
511 Fault Evaluations
39
6 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS AND RELAYING
42
Basic Relay Units
43
22 Magnetic Induction Units
45
23 DArsonval Units
47
32 Composite Sequence Current Networks
48
33 Sequence Voltage Networks
49
4 SOLIDSTATE UNITS
50
42 SolidState Logic Units
52
5 BASIC LOGIC CIRCUITS
54
52 Amplification Units
59
6 INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
63
62 Basic Operational Amplifier Units
65
63 Relay Applications of Operational Amplifier
68
7 MICROPROCESSOR ARCHITECTURE
70
Protection Against Transients and Surges
71
12 Electromagnetic Induction
72
2 TRANSIENTS ORIGINATING IN THE HIGH VOLTAGE SYSTEM
73
23 Transmission Line Switching
74
32 Direct Current Circuit Energization
75
42 Suppression at the Source
77
45 Radial Routing of Control Cables
78
48 Increased Energy Requirement
79
Instrument Transformers for Relaying
81
22 Effect of dc Component
82
41 Formula Method
83
Current Transformer Accuracy Classes
85
5 EUROPEAN PRACTICE
87
51 TPX
88
7 RESIDUAL FLUX
89
8 MOCT
91
92 Coupling Capacitor Voltage Transformers
92
93 MOVTEOVT
93
Microprocessor Relaying Fundamentals
95
2 SAMPLING PROBLEMS
97
4 HOW TO OVERCOME ALIASING
98
5 CHOICE OF MEASUREMENT PRINCIPLE
99
51 rms Calculation
100
54 Another Digital Filter
101
56 Symmetrical Component Filter
102
6 SELFTESTING
103
7 CONCLUSIONS
104
System Grounding and Protective Relaying
105
22 Ground Fault Detection on Ungrounded Systems
107
3 REACTANCE GROUNDING
108
32 Resonant Grounding Ground Fault Neutral izer
109
4 RESISTANCE GROUNDING
110
42 HighResistance Grounding
111
5 SENSITIVE GROUND RELAYING
112
52 Ground Product Relay with Conventional Current Transformers
113
53 Ground Overcurrent Relay with Zero Sequence Current Transformers
114
62 Multigrounded FourWire Systems
115
Generator Protection
117
31 Percentage Differential Relays Device 87
118
32 High Impedance Differential Relays Device 87
119
4 STATOR GROUND FAULT PROTECTION
120
87N3
121
44 100 Winding Protection
122
5 BACKUP PROTECTION
123
52 Balanced Faults
124
6 OVERLOAD PROTECTION
126
9 LOSSOFEXCITATION PROTECTION
127
93 LossofField Relays
128
95 TwoZone KLF Scheme
129
10 PROTECTION AGAINST GENERATOR MOTORING
130
101 Steam Turbines
131
11 INADVERTENT ENERGIZATION
132
12 FIELD GROUND DETECTION
134
121 BrushType Machine
135
122 Brushless Machines
136
15 OFFFREQUENCY OPERATION
138
16 RECOMMENDED PROTECTION
139
182 Choice of Fast Transfer Scheme
140
183 Slow Transfer
142
19 MICROPROCESSORBASED GENERATOR PROTECTION
143
Motor Protection
145
12 Induction Motor Equivalent Circuit
146
2 PHASEFAULT PROTECTION
147
4 LOCKEDROTOR PROTECTION
149
5 OVERLOAD PROTECTION
153
61 RTDInputType Relays
154
7 LOWVOLTAGE PROTECTION
155
10 PHASEUNBALANCE PROTECTION
156
11 NEGATIVE SEQUENCE CURRENT RELAYS
157
14 OUTOFSTEP PROTECTION
158
16 TYPICAL APPLICATION COMBINATIONS
159
Transformer and Reactor Protection
163
22 Recovery Inrush
165
3 DIFFERENTIAL RELAYING FOR TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
166
32 General Guidelines for Transformer Differential Relaying Application
171
58 Distance Relaying for Backup Protection
192
6 TYPICAL PROTECTIVE SCHEMES FOR INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL POWER TRANSFORMERS
193
7 REMOTE TRIPPING OF TRANSFORMER BANK
197
9 ZIGZAG TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
202
10 PROTECTION OF SHUNT REACTORS
203
102 RateofRiseofPressure Protection
205
104 Differential Protection
206
105 Reactors on Delta System
207
106 TurntoTurn Faults
209
StationBus Protection
213
12 Information Required for the Preparation of a Bus Protective Scheme
215
2 BUS DIFFERENTIAL RELAYING WITH OVERCURRENT RELAYS
216
3 MULTIRESTRAINT DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM
217
4 HIGH IMPEDANCE DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM
219
41 Factors that Relate to the Relay Setting
221
43 Setting Example for the KAB Bus Protection
222
6 PROTECTING A BUS THAT INCLUDES A TRANSFORMER BANK
223
7 PROTECTING A DOUBLEBUS SINGLE BREAKER WITH BUS TIE ARRANGEMENT
224
8 OTHER BUS PROTECTIVE SCHEMES
226
82 Directional Comparison Relaying
227
Line and Circuit Protection
229
14 Relays for Phase and GroundFault Protection
230
2 OVERCURRENT PHASE AND GROUND FAULT PROTECTION
231
22 Time Overcurrent Protection
232
23 Instantaneous Overcurrent Protection
237
24 Overcurrent GroundFault Protection
238
3 DIRECTIONAL OVERCURRENT PHASEAND GROUNDFAULT PROTECTION
239
34 Mutual Induction and GroundRelay Directional Sensing
243
35 Application of Negative Sequence Directional Units for Ground Relays
244
4 DISTANCE PHASE AND GROUND PROTECTION
247
42 PhaseDistance Relays
250
43 GroundDistance Relays
254
44 Effect of Line Length
257
45 The Infeed Effect on DistanceRelay Application
260
46 The Outfeed Effect on DistanceRelay Applications
261
48 Distance Relays with Transformer Banks at the Terminal
262
49 Fault Resistance and GroundDistance Relays
265
5 LOOPSYSTEM PROTECTION
267
52 MultipleSource Loop Protection
269
6 SHORTLINE PROTECTION
270
7 SERIESCAPACITOR COMPENSATEDLINE PROTECTION
273
73 Distance Protection Behavior
275
74 Practical Considerations
276
81 Relay Coordination with Reclosers and Sectionalizers on a Feeder
277
EQUATION 122
281
B2 Basic Application Example of a Phase Comparator
284
B3 Basic Application Example of a Magnitude Comparator
285
B5 Reverse Characteristics of an Impedance Unit
294
B6 Response of Distance Units to Different Types of Faults
298
B7 The Influence of Current Distribution Factors and Load Flow
302
B8 Derived Characteristics
305
B10 Summary
306
C2 Infeed Effect on Type SDG and LDG GroundDistance Relays
307
COORDINATION IN MULTIPLE LOOP SYSTEMS
308
D3 Relay Setting and Coordination
309
Backup Protection
323
22 Local Backup and Breaker Failure
324
23 Applications Requiring Remote Backup with BreakerFailure Protection
326
3 BREAKERFAILURE RELAYING APPLICATIONS
327
32 BreakerandaHalf and Ring Buses
328
4 TRADITIONAL BREAKERFAILURE SCHEME
329
42 Traditional BreakerFailure Relay Characteristics
330
43 Microprocessor Relays
331
5 AN IMPROVED BREAKERFAILURE SCHEME
332
52 The Improved BreakerFailure Scheme
333
53 Type SBF1 Relay
334
6 OPEN CONDUCTOR AND BREAKER POLE DISAGREEMENT PROTECTION
336
7 SPECIAL BREAKERFAILURE SCHEME FOR SINGLEPOLE TRIP SYSTEM APPLICATION
337
System Stability and OutofStep Relaying
339
3 TRANSIENT STABILITY
340
4 RELAY QUANTITIES DURING SWINGS
341
5 EFFECT OF OUTOFSTEP CONDITIONS
343
52 Directional Comparison Systems
344
6 OUTOFSTEP RELAYING
345
62 TransmissionLine OutofStep Relaying
346
71 Utility Practice
347
82 Blinder Scheme
348
92 SolidState Types
349
10 SELECTION OF AN OUTOFSTEP RELAY SYSTEM
351
Voltage Stability
353
12 LargeDisturbance Instability
355
13 Voltage Instability Incidents
356
2 VOLTAGE INSTABILITY INDICES
357
22 Indices Based on Stressed System Conditions
360
23 Summary
362
Reclosing and Synchronizing
365
3 RECLOSING SYSTEM CONSIDERATIONS
366
35 LiveLineDeadBus LiveBusDeadLine Control
367
39 Inhibit Control
368
41 Feeders with NoFaultPower BackFeed and Minimum Motor Load
369
53 Multishot Reclosing Relays
371
6 SYNCHRONISM CHECK
377
62 Angular Synchronism Check Characteristic
378
7 DEADLINE OR DEADBUS RECLOSING
379
LoadShedding and Frequency Relaying
381
3 LOADSHEDDING
383
4 FREQUENCY RELAYS
384
42 Digital Frequency Relays
385
52 Number of LoadShedding Steps
386
54 Frequency Settings
387
55 Time Delay
388
6 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS
389
7 RESTORING SERVICE
390
8 OTHER FREQUENCY RELAY APPLICATIONS
391
Bibliography
395
Index
399
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