Tube Forming Processes: A Comprehensive Guide
Society of Manufacturing Engineers, 2003 - 385 sayfa
"Tube Forming Processes, A Comprehensive Guide" is a thorough handbook with recent developments in the field, The text discusses the best materials for bending and methods and equipment for bending, cutting, branching, brazing and joining tubes. The book is suitable for the novice or for advanced tube fabricators. Information is from top industry experts covering the fundamentals and guidelines for tube fabrication, pipe fabrication, and other areas. There is information on secondary operations required by typical fabricators. The book also addresses management concerns, such as determining appropriate tools and equipment, weighing costs and quality, and knowing the choices available.
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Tube Branching Methods
Fabricated Tee Connections
Dimensioning Drawings of Bent Parts
Basic Tube Cuttolength Methods
Dualblade Shear Cutting
Supported Shear Cutting
Basic Bending Methods
Justifying and Selecting Equipment
Tube End Forming
Brazing and Joining
Basic Joining Techniques
Designing for Automation
Fundamentals of Brazing
Oxide Removal Systems
Other Operations and Lubrication
Tube and Pipe Design and Inspection
Inspection Techniques for Tube and Pipe Shapes
Plasticity Theory of Bending and Forming
Mechanics of Bending
allow aluminum amount annealing applications base metals bead bend radius bender bending form bending machine blade brazing centerline radius chromium clamp length cleaning components compound compression configuration copper cost cross-sectional cutoff deformation determine draw bending ductile eliminate elongation equipment extrusions fabricated fibers filler alloy finish flange flare flow flux force friction gage groove hardening heat increase inside diameter lubricant mandrel manufacturers material method minimum molybdenum moves neutral axis neutral plane Nickel operation oxides position pressure production punch radial radii reduce roll rotation setup shown in Figure specific springback square tubing stainless steel strain strength stress stress-strain curve stretch forming surface swaging tangent temperature tensile tensile strength tension tion titanium tolerances tool steel tooling Tube and Pipe tube diameter tube end tube material tube shape tube-fabricating usually wall thickness weld flash wiper workpiece wrinkles
Sayfa 7 - These digits are the same as the two digits to the right of the decimal point in the minimum aluminum percentage when it is expressed to the nearest 0.01%.
Sayfa 7 - ... designations consist of letters. Subdivisions of the basic tempers, where required, are indicated by one or more digits following the letter. These designate specific sequences of basic treatments, but only operations recognized as significantly influencing the characteristics of the product are indicated. Should some other variation of the same sequence of basic operations be applied to the same alloy, resulting in different characteristics, then additional digits are added to the designation.
Sayfa 1 - It is necessary, however, to deviate from this system and to interpolate numbers in the case of some carbon ranges, and for variations in manganese, sulfur, or other elements with the same carbon range.
Sayfa 7 - The temper designation follows the alloy designation and is separated from it by a hyphen.
Sayfa xiv - Interpreter more descriptive definition for process planning is "the systematic determination of the methods by which a product is to be manufactured, economically and competitively.
Sayfa 7 - ... 2.2 Aluminum Alloys — In the 2xxx through 8xxx alloy groups, the last two of the four digits in the designation have no special significance but serve only to identify the different aluminum alloys in the group. The second digit in the alloy designation indicates alloy modifications (Note 5.3).