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and exhibitions on that occasion-Procession of the pope-He visits the tomb of his father

-Arrives at Bologna-His interview with Francis I.---Particular occurrences on that occasion-Abolition of the Pragmatic Sanction and establishment of the Concordat—Leo X. returns to Florence-Raffaello Petrucci obtains the chief authority in Siena-Death of Giuliano de' Medici-Escape of the pope from barbarian corsairs at Civita Lavinia.

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A. St 40.


ALTHOUGH the death of Louis XII. had CHAP. for the present relieved the Roman pontiff from the apprehensions which he had entertained for the repose of Italy, yet that event was A. Pont. II. by no means favourable to his views. By the united efforts of his spiritual arms and his tem- I. assumes poral allies, Leo had not only repressed the the title of ambitious designs of the French monarch, but had acquired an ascendency over him which might have been converted to very important purposes ; and if he could not induce the king to relinquish his designs upon Milan, yet he had made such arrangements as to be prepared for whatever might be the event of that ex


duke of Mi. lan.

B 2



A. Et. 40.

CHAP. pedition. By the death of this monarch, he

therefore lost in a great degree the result of his A. D. 1515. labours; and this he had the more reason to A. Pont. III. regret, as the duke of Angoulême, who suc

ceeded to the crown at the age of twenty-two
years, by the name of Francis I. was of a vi-
gorous constitution, an active disposition, and
courageous even to a romantic extreme. On
assuming the title of king of France, he for-
got not to add that of duke of Milan; but al-
though the salique law had preferred him to
the two daughters of Louis XII. as the suc-
cessor of that monarch, the sovereignty of
Milan was considered, under the imperial in-
vestiture, as the absolute inheritance of the
late king and liable to be disposed of at his
own pleasure. Preparatory to the negotiation
which had taken place for the marriage of
Reneé, youngest daughter of Louis XII. with
the archduke Charles, her father had made a
grant to her of the duchy of Milan and the
county of Pavia, with a limitation, in case of
her dying without offspring, to his eldest
daughter Claudia the queen of Francis I.(a)


(d) There was also a further limitation to Francis, in
case the two princesses died without children. The grant is
preserved in Du Mont, Corps Diplomatique, tom. iv. par.
i, þ. 177.

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Soon after the accession of Francis, the

queen, therefore, by a solemn diploma, transferred to the king her rights to the duchy of Milan A. D. 1515. and its dependent 'states; in consideration, as A. Pont. III. it

appears, of a grant previously made to her of the duchies of Aragon and Angoulême, and a stipulation on the part of Francis of providing a suitable match for the princess Reneé.(a)

Forms an alliance

The character of Francis I. was a sufficient pledge that the title which he had thus assumed would not long be suffered to remain with the

archduke merely nominal. From his infancy he had

Charles. been accustomed to hear of the achievements of his countrymen in Italy. The Glory of Gaston de Foix seemed to obscure his own reputation, and at the recital of the battles of Brescia and of Ravenna, he is said to have expressed all those emotions of impatient regret which Cæsar felt on contemplating the statue of Alexander. He was, however, sufficiently aware, that before he engaged in an enterprise of such importance as the conquest of Milan, it would be necessary not only to confirm his alliances with those




(a) This act is giving by Lünig, Codex Italia Diplomalicus, i. 522. Also by Du Mont, Corps Diplomat, tom, iv. þar, i. p. 211.


were in amity with France, but also to obviate

as far as possible the opposition of such as A. D. 1515. might be hostile to his views. His first overA. Pont. III. tures were therefore directed to the young

archduke Charles, who, although then only

had assumed the

government of the Netherlands, which he inherited in right of his grandmother Mary daughter of Charles last duke of Burgundy. The situation of the archduke rendered such an alliance highly expedient to him; and the conditions were speedily concluded on. By this treaty the contracting parties promised to aid each other in the defence of the dominions which they then respectively held, or which they might thereafter possess; and that if either of them should undertake any just conquest, the other should upon a proper representation, afford his assistance, in such a manner as might be agreed upon. Many regulations were also introduced respecting the territories held by the archduke as fiefs from the crown of France, and the contract for the marriage of the archduke with the princess Reneé was again revived under certain stipulations, which it would be superfluous to enumerate, as the marriage never took place.(a)


(a) The author of the Ligue de Cambray informs us, that by this treaty the French monarch undertook to assist


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