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I. SYMBOLUM APOSTOLICUM. THE APOSTLES' CREED. (a) FORMA RECEPTA. Sixth CENTURY OR LATER. LATIN, GREEK, AND
ENGLISH (6) FORMA ROMANA VETUS. SYMBOLUM MARCELLI. SYMBOLUM
AUGUSTINI. FOURTH CENTURY (c) FORMA AQUILEJENSIS. RUFINUS. FORTUNATUS. FOURTH AND
Fifth CENTURIES (d) FORMA ITALICA VETUS. FOURTH CENTURY....... COMPARATIVE TABLE SHOWING THE GRADUAL FORMATION OF THE Apos
II. SYMBOLUM NICÆNO-CONSTANTINOPOLITANUM. THE
NICENE CREED, A.D. 325 AND 381. (a) FORMA RECEPTA ECCLESIÆ ORIENTALIS. A.D. 181. GREEK AND LATIN
57 (6) FORMA RECEPTA ECCLESIÆ OCCIDENTALIS. LATIx and English 58 (c) SYMBOLUM NICENUM VETUS. A.D. 325. GREEK AND LATIN ....... 60
APPENDIX. OTHER ORIENTAL CREEDS OF THE NICENE AGE........... 61
III. SYMBOLUM CHALCEDONENSE. THE CREED OF THE
CECUMENICAL COUNCIL OF CHALCEDON. A.D. 451. GREEK, LATIN, AND English.
IV. SYMBOLUM ATHANASIANUM.
V. SYMBOLUM CONSTANTINOPOLITANUM TERTIUM, AD.
VERSUS MONOTHELETAS. A.D. 680.
MONOTHELITES. Review OF Tua DOGMATIC LEGISLATION OF THE
1. SYMBOLUM APOSTOLICUM. (a) FORMA RECEPTA.'
Credo in Deum Patrem omnipo- Πιστεύω εις ΘΕΟΝ ΠΑΤΕΡΑ, tentem ; Creatorem coeli et terræ. αντοκράτορα, ποιητήν ουρανού και
γης. Et in JESUM CHRISTUM, Filium Και (εις) ΙΗΣΟΥΝ ΧΡΙΣΤΟΝ, ejus unicum, Dominum nostrum ; υιόν αυτού τον μονογενή, τον κύριον qui conceptus est de Spiritu Sancto, ήμών, τον συλληφθέντα εκ πνεύματος natus et Iaria irgine; passus αγίου, γεννηθέντα εκ Μαρίας της παρsub Pontio Pilato, crucificus, mor-θένου, παθόντα επί Ποντίου Πιλάτου, tuus, et sepultus ; descendit ad in- σταυρωθέντα, θανόντα, και ταφέντα, ferna ;? tertia die resurrecit α κατελθόντα εις τα κατώτατα, τη τρίτη mortuis ; ascendit ad clos; sedet ημέρα αναστάντα από των νεκρών, ad decteram Dei Patris omnipo- ανελθόντα εις τους ουρανούς, καθεtentis; inde venturus (est) judi-ζόμενον εν δεξια θεού πατρός παντοcare vivos et mortuos.
δυνάμου, εκείθεν ερχόμενον κρίναι
ζώντας και νεκρούς. Credo' in SPIRITUM SANCTUM; Πιστεύω εις το ΠΝΕΥΜΑ ΤΟ sanctam ecclesian catholicam; "ΑΓΙΟΝ, αγίαν καθολικήν εκκληsanctorum communionem ; remis- σίαν, αγίων κοινωνίαν, άφεσιν αμαρsionem peccatorum; carnis resur- τιών, σαρκός ανάστασιν, ξωήν αιώrectionem; υitam eternam. Amen. νιον. 'Αμήν.
I. THE APOSTLES' CREED. (a) RECEIVED FORM. I believe in GOD THE FATHER Almighty; Maker of heaven and earth.
And in Jesus Christ liis only (begotten) Son our Lord; who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary; suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead, and buried; he descended into hell [Flades, spirit-world]; the third day he rose from the dead; he ascended into hearen; and sitteth at the right hand of God the Father Almighty; from thence he shall come to judge the quick and the dead.
I believe in the IIoly Ghost; the holy catholic Church; the communion of saints; the forgiveness of sins; the resurrection of the body [filesh];' and the life everlasting. Amen.
NOTES. * The Latin and Greek texts of the Apostles' Creed are taken from the Psalterium Græcum et Romanum, erroneously ascribed to Pope Gregory the Great, first published from a MS. preserved in the library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, by Archbishop Ussher: De Romanæ Ecclesiæ Symbolo Apostolico vetere, London, 1647. I used the Geneva edition, 1722, pp. 6, 7. The MS. is written in two parallel columns, the one Latin, the other Greek, but the Greek likewise in Latin characters. The same text is giren by HAHN, Biblioth, der Symb. p. 10, and HEURTLEY (in Greek), Harmonia Symb. pp. 81-83. The Latin text agrees with the creed of Pirminius (d. 758) in Heurtley, p. 71. Caspari discovered and published fonr other Greek translations from mediæval MSS. with slight variations, Vol. III. pp. 11 sqq.
2 Descendit ad inferna (other Latin copies: ad inferos, to the inhabitants of the spiritworld; so also in the Athanasian Symbol), kategóvta eis tà katúrata (other Eastern creeds: cis çiçov, viz., tónov,or eis tòv (dnv), he descended into Hadcs. This clause was unknown in the older creeds, though believed in the Church, and was transferred into the Roman symbol after the fifth century, probably from that of Aquilcia, A.D. 390, where it first appears among Latin creeds, as we learn from Rufinus. In the East it is found before in Arian creeds (about 360). After this we meet it again in the Creed of Venantius Fortunatus, A.D. 590, who had the Creed of Rufinus before him. The words katútara and inferna, taken from Eph. iv. 9, correspond here to the Greek "Aions, which occurs eleven times in the Greek Testament, viz., Matt. xi. 23; xvi. 18; Luke x. 15; xvi. 23 ; Acts ii. 27, 31; 1 Cor. xv. 55 ; Rev. i. 18; vi. 8; xx. 13, 14, and is always incorrectly translated hell in the English Version, except in 1 Cor. xv. 55. Hades signifies, like the Hebrew Sheol, the unseen spirit-world, the abode of all the departed, both the righteous and wicked; while hell (probably from the Saxon word helan, to cover, to conceal), at least in modern usage, is a much narrower conception, and signifies the state and place of eternal damnation, like the Hebrew gehenna, which occurs twelve times in the Greek Testament, and is so translated in the English Bible, viz., Matt. v. 22, 29, 30; x. 28; xviii. 9; xxüi. 15, 33; Mark ix. 43, 45, 47; Luke xii. 5; James iii. 6. The American editions of the Book of Common Prayer leave it optional with the minister to use, in the Creed, hell, or the place of departed spirits; but it would be much better to restore or popularize the Greek Hades. The current translation, hell, is apt to mislead, and excludes the important fact-the only one which we certainly know of the mysterious triduum—that Christ was in Paradise in the time between the crucifixion and the resurrection, according to his own declaration to the penitent thief, Luke xxiii. 43. Some connect the descent into Hades with the resurrection in one article ; while others, on the contrary, connect it with the preceding article by placing a (,) after buried. It forms rather a separate article, and should be included in (;), as above.
The clause has been explained in three different ways: 1. It is identical with sepultus (Rufinus), or means "continued in the state of death and under the power of death' till the resurrection (Westminster divines). This makes it a useless repetition in figurative language. 2. It signifies the intensity of Christ's sufferings on the cross, where he tasted the pain of hell for sinners (Calvin and the Heidelberg Catechism). This is inconsistent with tlie order of the clause between death and resurrection. 3. An actual self-manifestation of Christ after the crucifixion to all the departed spirits, Luke xxiii. 43; Acts ii. 27, 31; 1 Pet. iii. 18,19; iv.6; comp. Eph. iv. 8,9; Col. ii. 15; Phil. ii. 10; Rev. i. 18. As such the descent is a part of the universality of the scheme of redemption, and forms the transition from the state of humiliation to the state of exaltation. This is the historical explanation, according to the belief of the ancient Church, but leaves much room for speculation concerning the object and effect of the descent.
3 Resurrection of the body.' The older English translations of the Creed had the literal rendering flesh (caro, cápk), by which the ancient Church protested against spiritualistic conceptions of the Gnostics. But this may be misunderstood in a grossly materialistic sense, while the resurrection of the body is unobjectionable ; comp. 1 Cor. xv. 50. According to lleurtley, 1. c. p. 147, the change of flesh into body was first made 1543, in 'The necessary Doctrine and Erudition for any Christian Man,' set forth by Henry VIII.; but in the Interrogative Creed, used at Baptism and at the Visitation of the Sick, flesh is retained.
C) THE OLD ROMAN AND AFRICAN FORM OF THE
FORMA ROMANA VETUS. SYMBOLUM AUGUSTINI (354-430).
HIPPO REGIUS, AFRICA (Circ. 400).? Credo in DEUM PATREM omnipo- Credo in Deum PATREM omnipotentem,
tentem. Et in JESUM CHRISTUM, Fil- Et in JESUM CHRISTUM, Filium ium ejus unicum, Dominum nos- ejus unigenitum (unicum), Domitrum;
num nostrum ; qui natus est de Spiritu Sancto qui natus est per Spiritum Sancet Maria virgine;
tum ex virgine Maria; sub Pontio Pilato crucifixus, et
sub Pontio Pilato crucifixus est, sepultus ;
et sepultus; tertia die resurrexit a mortuis; tertio die resurrexit a mortuis;
ascendit in cælum, sedet ad dex- ascendit in cælum, sedet ad dexteram Patris,
teram Patris; inde venturus judicare vivos et inde venturus est judicaturus mortuos.
(ad judicandos) vivos et mortuos. Et in SPIRITUM SANCTUM;
Credo et in SPIRITUM SANCTUM; Sanctam Ecclesiam;
sanctam ecclesiam; remissionem peccatorum;
remissionem peccatorum; carnis resurrectionem.
carnis resurrectionem (? in vitam eternam).
PROFESSIO FIDEI MARCELLI ANCY- THE ROMAN FORM TRANSLATED.
RANI. BEFORE A.D. 341.3 Πιστεύω εις ΘΕΟΝ [ΠΑΤΕΡΑ], I believe in GOD THE FATHER παντοκράτορα
Almighty. και εις ΧΡΙΣΤΟΝ ΙΗΣΟΥΝ, τον And in Jesus Christ his onlyυιόν αυτού τον μονογενή, τον κύριον | begotten Son our Lord, ημών,
τον γεννηθέντα εκ πνεύματος αγί- who was born of the Holy Ghost ου και Μαρίας της παρθένου, and the Virgin Mary;
τον επί Ποντίου Πιλάτου σταυρω- crucified under Pontius Pilate, θέντα, και ταφέντα,