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CHAP. at Florence may be considered as a far more

durable memorial of his fame.(a)


A V. 1516. A. Et 41. A. Pont IV.

A few


(a) To a correct and unimpeachable moral character, Giuliano united no inconsiderable portion of literary talent, as appears from his writings, in which he followed, though not with equal vigour, the steps of his father. He is however enumerated by Crescimbeni among those writers who were superior to the corrupt taste of the age,

Dimostrò egli questo suo bel genio particolarmente nella volgar “ poesia, nella quale seguitando le paterne vestigia, ancorchè 6 non giugnesse all'eccellenza del comporre del Padre, non1 dimeno sì giudiziosamente adoperò, che non si fece gua“ dagnare dal corrottissimo gusto del secolo." Comment. vol. ii. par. ii. lib. vi. p. 338. Of his sonnets a specimen is given in the App. No. CXXXV. On the death of Giuliano, his widow, Filiberta of Savoy, returned to her sister Louisa, mother of Francis I. taking with her all her jewels and bridal ornaments, to an immense value. “ Nec multo - post ea (Philiberta) cum omni mundo muliebri preciosis" simisque insignium gemmarum monilibus, in Galliam ad a Ludovicam Sororem transmissa est." Jov, vita Leon. X. lib. iii. p. 70. Their short union was not productive of any offspring, but Giuliano left an illegitimate son who was born at Urbino, in the year 1511, and after having been educated in the Roman court, became the celebrated cardinal Ippolito de' Medici, and the munificent patron of all the learned men of his time. By the treaty between Leo X. and Francis I. Giuliano was to be honoured with a title in France, which


A. t. 41.

barbarian corsairs at


A few days after he had received intelli- CHAP. gence of this event, Leo retired to Civita Lavinia, a town of great antiquity, situate between A. D. 1516. Ostia and Antium, at the distance of about A. Pont. IV. three miles from the sea. At this juncture a

Escape of horde of barbarian corsairs suddenly disem- the pope barked from their vessel, and after commit- from the ting great depredations on the coast, captured a considerable number of persons, whom they Civita Lacarried off with them as prisoners. It was supposed to have been their intention to have seized upon


person of the pope, of whose temporary residence they had probably been apprized; but Leo was aware of the danger in sufficient time to escape their pursuit, and hastened in great terror to Rome. Muratori, who relates this incident on the authority of a manuscript history by an anonymous writer of Padua, exclaims, " what horrors, what dread“ ful consequences would have ensued, if

46 these

it was understood should be that of Duke of Nemours; and although his death prevented his being formally invested with that honour, yet he is frequently mentioned by that title. On his death, Ariosto wrote an ode, not inferior to any of the productions of his exquisite pen, in which he introduces the shade of Giuliano as apostrophizing in the most elegant and affectionate terms his widowed bride. This piece will be found in the Appendix, No. CXXXVI.




A. Bt. 41.

6 these barbarians had succeeded in their

pro“ ject!" It would indeed have been a singuA. D. 1516. lar circumstance, if Leo had in one moment A. Pont. iv. descended from the height of his authority

and the first station in Christendom to the degrading condition of a slave. To form conjectures as to the probable consequences of such an event, is, however, as useless as it is difficult; but we may with certainty decide, that however humiliating such a circumstance would have been to the christian world, it would not have shaken the belief of the faith, ful either in the sacred character of the

pon: tiff or in the infallibility of the holy see,


PROPOSED alliance of England Spain and

AustriaDeath of Ferdinand of SpainHis character-Francis I. forms designs upon the kingdom of NaplesThe emperor elect Maximilian enters Italy in great force-His ineffectual attempt against Milan-Francis I. suspects the pope of having favoured the enterprise-Leo intends to aggrandize his nephew Lorenzo-Excommunicates the duke of Urbino and expels him from his dominionsConfers the title and authority on Lorenzo The Venetians recover the city of BresciaVerona successfully defended by Marc-Antonio Colonna-Negotiations for the general pacification of Europe - Treaty of NoyonLeo endeavours to counteract its effectsTreaty of London-Motives of the pope for opposing the pacificationThe exiled duke of Urbino recovers his dominions-Leo requires the aid of all Christendom against himThe duke of Urbino challenges his rival Lorenzo to single combatWar of UrbinoThe duke resigns his dominions-Conspiracy of Petrucci and other cardinals against the pope-Conspirators discovered— Arrest of the cardinal RiarioSeveral other cardinals confess their guilt

Execution of Petrucci and his subordinate accomplicesConduct of Leo towards the other conspirators-Observations on this event-Leo creates in one day thirty-one cardinals-Splendor of the Roman See-Leo promotes the hapþiness of his subjects,

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