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A. t. 49.

CHAP. little importance which had opposed his pro

gress were stormed, and the garrisons treated A. D. 1537. with great severity. Arriving in his own doA. Pont. v. minions, he found his capital defended only by

a small body of troops which was instantly put to flight, and in the space of a few weeks the duke, without a single engagement of any importance, found himself as suddenly restored to his authority as he had been, a short time before, deprived of it.

aid of all


This unexpected reverse of fortune was a Leo re- cause of inexpressible chagrin to the pope, not quires the only on account of the loss of a territory which

he had considered as effectually secured to his Christendom against family, but as it indicated a hostile disposition

on the part of those sovereigns whose commanders and troops had engaged in the service of the duke. On this account he warmly remonstrated with the ambassador of the French monarch on the conduct of Lautrec, who had permitted Federigo da Bozzolo, one of his stipendiaries, to enter into the service of the duke.(a) He also complained to the

emperor elect Maximilian, and to the young monarch


(a) Cuicciard. lib. xiii. v. ii. p. 127, 130.

of Spain, that their troops had been engaged CHA P. in opposition to the cause of the church, which he strongly insinuated would not have been A. D. 1517. done without their privity and assent. Not satisfied however with these remonstrances, he resorted to his pontifical authority, and issued his briefs requiring the assistance of all the princes of Christendom against a rebel and a traitor, who had not only opposed himself in open arms against his paramount lord, but had thrown off all reverence to the holy see.(a) These representations were not without their effect. The friendship of a pontiff who by his talents and vigilance, no less than by his high office, had obtained so considerable an influence in the affairs of Europe, was without long hesitation preferred to the disinterested task of vindicating the rights of a petty sovereign, whose conduct had on several occasions undoubtedly given just cause for reprehension. The Spanish king not only exculpated himself from all share in the transaction, but immediately admonished his subjects to quit the


A. St. 42. A. Pont. V.


(a) On this occasion Leo wrote in a particular manner to Henry VIII. representing the church as in a situation of great difficulty and danger, and entreating his immediate and effectual assistance, P. App. No. CXXXIX.

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CHAP. service of the duke of Urbino." He also diXIV:

rected the count of Potenza to proceed from A. D. 1517. Naples with four hundred lances to the aid of A. Pont. V. the pope, and as a proof of the sincerity of his

intentions, he deprived the duke of Urbino of the ducal territory of Sora, which had been purchased by his father within the kingdom of Naples. Francis I. although justly suspicious of the intentions of the pontiff, sent also to his assistance a body of three hundred lances; but this reinforcement was accompanied by many complaints of the non-observance by the pope of the treaty concluded between him and the king at Bologna. The unjustifiable severity exercised by Leo against the exiled duke of Urbino, and particularly his cruelty in depriving both the dowager duchess and the wife of the reigning duke of the revenues appointed for their support, had also been warmly animadverted on by the duchess of Angoulême, mother of the French monarch, who possessed great influence with her son and resented with commendable spirit the injury done to those of her own sex. Leo, being privately informed of this circumstance, and conscious that he had given just occasion for complaint, hesitated whether it would be prudent to accept the assistance offered to him


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A. St. 9. A. Pont. V.

by the king. These difficulties were not, CHAP. however, of long continuance. In complying with the request of the pope, by giving to his A. D. 1517. cause the credit of his name and the assistance of his arms, Francis proposed that a new confederation should be entered into between them, by which they should reciprocally bind themselves to the defence of each other's dominions, and to the advance for that


if it should appear necessary, of a monthly sum of twelve thousand ducats. The Florentines were also included as auxiliaries in the league, and Lorenzo de' Medici was expressly recognized as duke of Urbino.(a) The king further consented to assist the pope, whenever he was required, against the vassals and feudatories of the church; but the pontiff engaged by a separate brief not to require the aid of the French monarch against the duke of Ferrara. On this occasion Francis again insisted with great earnestness on the restitution of Modena


(a) This treaty does not appear either in the Codex Italia Diplomaticus of Lünig, or in the collections of Du Mont, yet, as it is stated in express terms by Guicciardini, lib. xiii. vol. ii. p. 132, and is recognized by the accurate Muratori, Annali d'Ital. X. 132, there can be no doubt that it was concluded.


CHAP. and Reggio to the duke of Ferrara ; but the

pope sought to evade the discussion under the 4. D. 1517. pretext that it was not a proper time to make A. Pout. v. such a request, when he was engaged in a dan

gerous contest with another of the vassals of the church. Such, however, was the perseverance of the king, that Leo at length consented, by a written engagement, to restore those places to the duke at the expiration of the term of seven months; a promise which there is too much reason to believe he never intended to perform, although conceded to the importunity of the king ; relying on the change of circumstances which might arise within that period for a sufficient reason to justify him in the breach of it.(a)

The duke During this negotiation, Leo had used his of Urbino utmost efforts to increase the forces under the challenges his rival command of his nephew Lorenzo; which soon Lorenzo to amounted to one thousand men at arms, fifteen single combat.

hundred light-horse, and eighteen thousand infantry, composed of an heterogeneous assemblage of Gascons, Germans, Swiss, Spa


(a) On this subject, Muratori bluntly observes, “l'osser

vare la parola non fu mai contato fra le virtù di questo “ pontefice." Annali d'Italia, X. 132.

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