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Nunc aureâ conditur ætas Mars silet, et positis belli Tritonia signis Exercet calamos, sopitaque tempore longo Excitat ingenia ad certamina docta sororum.

And. Fulvii, praf. ad Leon. X. de antiquitatibus Urbis.


FRANCIS I. assumes the title of duke of Mi

lan-Forms an alliance with the archduke Charles With Henry VIII.- And with the Venetian state-Léo X. wishes to remain neuter-Marriage of Giuliano de' Medici with Filiberta of Savoy-Confidential letter to him from the cardinal da Bibbiena-Leo X. compelled to take a decisive part--Accedes to the league against France-Revolt of Fregosa at Genoa-He attempts to justify his conduct to the pope-Preparations of Francis I. for attacking the Milanese— Forces of the alliesThe league proclaimedGenoa surrenders to the French fleet-Prospero Colonna surprised and made prisoner The pope relaxes in his opposition to Francis I.The Swiss resolve to oppose the French-Francis I. summons the city of Milan to surrender-Endeavours without effect to form an alliance with the SwissRapid march of D'AlvianoInactivity of the Spanish and papal troopsBattle of Marignano-Francis I. knighted by the chevalier BayardSurrender of the Milanese-Leo X. forms an alliance with Francis I.Embassy from the Venetians to the French king-Death of D' AlvianoWolsey raised to the rank of cardinal-Leo X. visits Florence--Rejoicings



(2) and exhibitions on that occasion-Procession of the pope-He visits the tomb of his father -Arrives at BolognaHis interview with Francis I.-Particular occurrences on that occasion-Abolition of the Pragmatic Sanction and establishment of the Concordat--Leo X. returns to Florence-Raffaello Petrucci obtains the chief authority in Siena-Death of Giuliano de' Medici--Escape of the pope from barbarian corsairs at Civita Lavinia.

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ALTHOUGH the death of Louis XII. had CHAP. for the present relieved the Roman pontiff from the apprehensions which he had enter- A. D. 1515. tained for the repose of Italy, yet that event was A. Pont. II. by no means favourable to his views. By the united efforts of his spiritual arms and his tem- 1. assumes poral allies, Leo had not only repressed the the title of ambitious designs of the French monarch, but had acquired an ascendency over him which might have been converted to very important purposes ; and if he could not induce the king to relinquish his designs upon Milan, yet he had made such arrangements as to be prepared for whatever might be the event of that ex

B 2


duke of Mi. lan.

CHAP. pedition.


A, Et. 40.

By the death of this monarch, he therefore lost in a great degree the result of his A. D. 1515. labours; and this he had the more reason to A. Pont. Ill. regret, as the duke of Angoulême, who suc

ceeded to the crown at the age of twenty-two years, by the name of Francis I. was of a vigorous constitution, an active disposition, and courageous even to a romantic extreme. On assuming the title of king of France, he forgot not to add that of duke of Milan; but although the salique law had preferred him to the two daughters of Louis XII. as the successor of that monarch, the sovereignty of Milan was considered, under the imperial investiture, as the absolute inheritance of the late king and liable to be disposed of at his own pleasure. Preparatory to the negotiation which had taken place for the marriage of Reneé, youngest daughter of Louis XII. with the archduke Charles, her father had made a grant to her of the duchy of Milan and the county of Pavia, with a limitation, in case of her: dying without offspring, to his eldest daughter Claudia the queen of Francis I.(a)


w.fa) There was also a further limitation to Francis, in case the two princesses died without children. The grant is preserved in Du Mont, Corps Diplomatique, tom. iv. par. i. Þ; 177.

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