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muth reading by micrometers to single seconds, or tenths by estimation. Yet it is thought wise to use both. The base work has been variable; no special pains, so far, have been taken to secure high grade results, although one season's base, measured along a railroad tangent, represented an accuracy of over one in 100,000.

The nice theory of having a Junior in charge, a Sophomore at the instrument, and a Freshman for rodman, does not work out in practice. The chief difficulty is the desire or necessity on the part of so many to earn money during vacation. When students do such summer work in engineering in actual practice, they are given credit against the required field practice. Again the men are well satisfied to put two summers into topographic work, but not all of them a third, and in the main they are probably right. So in the future the third year may be spent on something else, or the work of the three years may be made to rotate about three classes of work, topographic, hydrographic, and railroad.

There is no question, however, as to the value of the topographic survey, conducted as above, in teaching field methods and developing character. The practical working knowledge gained and the traits of mind cultivated are along the line of the young

man's needs, when he takes his first position.

It must not be inferred that the above constitutes all the field work required at the University. General surveying, railroad work and hydraulics are cared for in other ways during the college year.

DISCUSSION.

PROFESSOR E. A. FUERTES said he had been very much interested in hearing Professor Marvin speak of the use of this method, which, the speaker had found from experience extending as far back as 1874, to be most excellent. Cornell University has adopted a similar practice, although it varies somewhat in detail; and the reason for speaking of it is not at all for the purpose of comparison, but simply to present a new aspect of the case, so that everyone may profit by the variety of solutions of which these kinds of experiences are capable. At Cornell, the students are not taken out during the summer vacation for the very good reasons given by Professor Marvin; generally, many of them need the summer to earn money. Their work is, therefore, confined to two weeks at the end of the junior and senior years. Some of the work done is of a character high enough to be beyond the reach of freshmen and sophomores, who are given field practice on the campus on afternoons and Saturdays. Usually, from sixty to eighty juniors and seniors take the field, and they generally get through with about 144 square miles of territory. Their operations are similar to those performed by a large corps employed for the surveys of international boundaries. There is a chief engineer chosen by the students. The object of this is to enable the students to come in contact with the person who has the actual lead in the operations to be performed; for a good deal of information can be gained, and more intimately, from a classmate than by asking the professor, whose

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relations to the student are of a more formal nature. In order to prevent a bad choice under the usual influence of class politics, the college appoints the Computer. This officer is responsible for all the checks of the mathematical work, and of all the operations of the survey. The students also choose a Commissary. This Commissary has the responsibility of providing for and maintaining the parties in the field, paying in cash for every purchase and incurring no debts. The Commissary looks after the health and comfort of the students, and so on. This is also a very good sort of experience, and something which the students appreciate, for they all learn, by student contact, the best methods of subsisting a large party in the field. Besides the assistant chief, and the assistant commissary, the rest of the officers are captains. The parties are divided into squads, each one being placed in charge of a captain. These captains are usually chosen by the college from among the men having the best record, taking into account their previous field experience, their executive capacity in the handling of men and making the work run smoothly. The surveys are in charge, of course, of the chief engineer ; but certain parts of the work are confined to the seniors, others to the juniors. The seniors first make are connaissance of the country and locate the primary stations, so as to get the work ready for triangulation. The triangulation is made under the very best auspices; so much so that the final adjustments of the net of triangles agree, within proper limits, with the measured base lines, as well as with the azimuths determined by other surveys or astronomical observations of tri

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ing cities are keen to avail themselves of new methods. In water supply engineering, the improvements in methods of filtration and purification, and the advance of knowledge on standards of purity of potable water and on the relation between the condition of public water supplies and the health of the people, has made this subject of prime importance. Sources and storage of water, the design of distribution systems, reservoirs, tanks and pumping stations, the principles of fire protection, and a discussion of many of the details of construction are essential to a complete course.

The science of sewerage is still in its infancy. Present methods are an advance over those of the past, but it is probable that this branch of engineering is far behind most branches of engineering in its development. This remark applies to the design and construction of the system as well as to the methods of disposal of sewage. The relation of rainfall to stormwater flow, the determination of size and capacity of sewers, the design and methods of construction of sewers and sewer appurtenances, the study of modern methods of sewage purification and disposal, are among the topics to be included. Garbage disposal, street cleaning, general sanitation and sanitary plumbing, are also important parts. For both sewerage and water supply engineering the preliminary training in hydraulics should be thorough.

Street and road engineering, including the improvement and maintenance of city streets, highways, park drives, walks, etc., is a branch requiring special and judicious training. The annual expenditures for these improvements in our cities is so great, and the results

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in so many cases so poor, that there is an opportunity for the exercise of the best efforts of the engineer. In such a course there must be considered not only the construction of pavements, but questions of grades, drainage, cross sections, crossings, and methods of maintenance. The testing and inspection of materials and the supervision of construction is important. The improvement of parks and boulevards, so far as engineering features are concerned, and to a limited extent the improvement of the surface of parks and pleasure grounds, are parts of this subject. A minor item which may be mentioned is the fixing of the grade lines of streets so as to add to the beauty of the street, give proper drainage, and yet benefit abutting property.

It is urged that instruction in the foregoing three subjects should cover more than the vague general principles given under the name sanitary engineering in many engineering courses. A proper study of details is as necessary here as in the study of bridge design or of surveying.

Many of the topics involved in water supply and sewerage require previous preparation in chemistry and bacteriology, and the science work should be arranged to include these subjects. The special investigator will require more time on these subjects than the ordinary student will be able to give.

The course in physics should be supplemented with some elementary work in the generation and transmission of electrical energy, and a study of the steam engine and boiler should be given.

But may enough subjects be omitted from the gen

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