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scene before his eyes Seddon writes, 'the Dead Sea seemed motionless,

and of a blue so deep that no water I have seen can compare with it. * The range of mountains beyond is forty or fifty miles off, and a thin veil of mist seemed to spread between us, and them and the sea, through which they appeared aerial and unreal. When the sun left

them, the hazy air above became a singular green colour, and the sky over, rosy red, gradually melting into the blue.' The strange variations not only of light and shadow, but of different coloured lights, too, seem to have made a strong impression on the closely observant painter, and make us still more regret that his early death prevented his giving us those Scripture pictures on which he had for meditated, and which would have been instinct with the very form and colour, as well as spirit, of the East. With a well-filled portfolio, and several finished pictures,—these were subsequently exhibited, and attracted well-deserved notice,- Thomas Seddon returned home. He married, and at length a prosperous artist life seemed about to open bofore him, but in the autumn of 1856 he unfortunately determined upon a second visit to the East. He was then far from robust, and the voyage severely tried his already feeble constitution; but he landed at Alexandria full of hopes, and eager to fulfil his great artistic plans. Too soon were these blighted, for after scarcely a week's illness he died on the 23rd of November, 1856, at the Church Mission house, leaving to the artist-world another sad record of a gifted young artist struck down in the midst of his onward career, but to his sorrowing family and friends a good hope,' and the soothing memory of his many excellencies. We heartily recommend this little work.

Recherches sur la Peinture en Email, dans l'Antiquité, et au moyenâge. Par JULES LABARTE. 4to. Paris : Didron. -Perhaps, among the many kinds of art-manufacture, that of working in enamel should take the foremost place. Indeed, in its higher forms it becomes art itself; but in its lower forms, it is an art so beautiful, so durable, so capable of being applied to almost every species of ornamentation, that we cannot be surprised to find that, after so many hundred years, enamel should be as highly prized as ever. It is one of the most ancient of arts, for Egypt affords us specimens, and Nineveh and Babylon too. In the ancient world, however, enamelling upon a metallic surface was unknown, and so was the use of translucent enamel; and thus in its more beautiful form it was unknown until comparatively recent times. Singularly enough, neither Greece nor Rome appear to have been acquainted with it; and although M. Labarte strives hard to prove that the precious substance termed by the Greeks electron was not amber, as generally supposed, but enamel, we think he fails, inasmuch as he cannot bring forward a single instance of electron' being represented as of various colours. Not the least curious fact in the history of enamelling is, however, that while this delicate and elaborate art was scarcely known—even if known at all to Greece and Rome—the Celtic barbarians of the far Northwest were largely employing it. M. Labarte refers to this singular fact, but chiefly it would seem to claim for Gaul a pre-eminence in

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Labarte on Painting in Enamel.

545 the art of enamelling, as well as in all other arts; but Mr. Franks, of the British Museum, a writer whose research is far more extensive than M. Labarte's, has proved, in a late most valuable essay, that this claim might be advanced, with far more correctness, in favour of Britain than of Ğaul. “It is not until the third century after Christ,' he says, that we obtain any mention of the art of enamelling. Philostratus, 'a Greek sophist at the court of Julia Domna, wife of Severus, has left

a curious work, entitled Icones, in which he describes a series of paint‘ings. One of them is a bear hunt; and after mentioning the varie'gated trappings of the horses, he adde, They say that the barbarians,

who live in (or by) the ocean, pour these colours on to heated brass, "and that they adhere, become as hard as stone, and preserve the

designs which are made in them.' The French writers have generally applied this passage to the Gauls, but the term by or in the 'ocean' would refer to the Britons with still greater force. 'the enamelled objects he mentions are bronze horse-trappings, and it

is precisely in Britain, and not in Gaul, that such objects are found.' The greater number, too, of enamelled remains, of various kinds, have been found in England; and that beautifully enamelled vase, also—the only one of its kind-which M. Labarte has given an engraving of, was found in Essex.

It seems most likely, therefore, that the art was derived, not from the East, but brought from Britain to Rome, and from thence to Byzantium, and probably about the time when Philostratus wrote, for we must remember that Severus returned direct from Britain to take the imperial crown. At Byzantium, enamelling, from the time of its adoption, was extensively used. M. Labarte thinks that the description of the golden cross erected by Constantine 'after the type he saw in the sky,' and which is described as enriched with 'fair stones and with glass,' refers to enamel. It is, however, far more likely that it refers to the gold mosaics which very soon after were sought for to decorate every church roof; but the gorgeous altar presented by Justinian to Sancta Sophia, and which is described as "glowing with gold and silver, sapphire and ruby,' was doubtless adorned with transparent enamel. From this time until the close of the twelith century, the Byzantine enameller supplied brooch, and clasp, and crown, and mitre, to the sovereigns and prelates of Western Europe. Sometimes his art was invoked on a larger scale, for M. Labarte, among his specimens, has given us a most elaborate book-cover composed of enamel and ivory, executed about 1014 for the Emperor Henry Il. ; but perhaps the most splendid specinien of ancient enamel-work extant is the celebrated ' Pala d'Oro’ at St. Mark's, where the ornaments and medallions are of surpassing delicacy. During this time, however, England, although she did not compete with Byzantium, still cultivated the art of enamelling, as well as most delicate goldsmith's work. King Alfred's jewel is well known, and the wife of the Conqueror, in her will, refers to the enamelled cups and covers of the London goldsmith. From about the close of the twelfth century Limoges, however, became the seat of a most celebrated manufactory of enamel; and during the fourteenth century, mitres, crosiers, and altar-plate-evén tombs, de opere Limovicensi-form a portion of every inventory of ehurch treasures. We looked over this portion of M. Labarte's work with some interest, hoping to find some curious memorials of art manufacture during the middle ages. In this, however, we were disappointed. Indeed, while the earlier portions of the work seem to have been very carefully written, the latter, relating to the middle ages, are far from being so full, or so interesting, as the subject demands. A work on mediæval enamels alone might be made as entertaining to the general reader as instructive to the art-student.

A Long Vacation in Continental Picture Galleries. By the Rev. T. W.JEX BLAKE, M.A. Parker.—The title scarcely explains the object of this little work, for it is a catalogue, with occasional remarks upon the paintings in the chief Continental galleries. The plan, however, is good, and the book will prove, we doubt not, very acceptable to the traveller.


The Human Mind in its relation to the Brain and Nervous System. By DANIEL NOBLE, M.D. Churchill.—Dr. Noble has spent much time and thought in that border-region where mind and body are supposed to unite, and where the mutual operation must be sought which give us the phenomena with which we are familiar. The qualities of mind necessary for prosecuting inquiries of this nature wisely are not common. Knowledge of the domain of physics and metaphysics—and knowledge so far as physiology and psychology are concerned, which shall be both comprehensive and discriminating, is indispensable. Not less so is soundness of judgment, which will not be seduced into theorizing, which will not accept assertion where there should be proof, and will not attempt proof where it is the province of reason to affirm that proof is not possible. Such fitnesses for his work Dr. Noble possesses in a high degree. He never dogmatises, he never allows his imagination, or a love of system, to make him insensible to the real language of facts. In the history of science there are syren voices which are ever doing their best to allure the inquirer into hasty generalizations. Dr. Noble has heard their notes before to day,and has come to be about as proof against them as most men. Symmetry and system are very beautiful when we can realise them, but it is the fact of their beauty that disposes men to persuade themselves that they have them when they have not. In the one hundred and fifty pages of which this volume consists, Dr. Noble has given us a large amount of interesting information, and of cautious scientific thought, for which the medical student, and the intelligent reader generally, should be grateful.

Physiologythe Boulder-Horse-taming. 547 Animal Physiology for Schools. By John DIONYSIUS LARDNER, D.C.L. — Another of Dr. Lardner's admirable series of scientific manuals for schools. It is illustrated by nearly two hundred engravings.

The Story of a Boulder; or, Gleanings from the Note-book of a Field Geologist. By ARCHIBALD GEIKIE. Constable. This is a pleasantly written book, presenting the results of much geological observation, and well adapted to stimulate those who read it to observation of their own. Every one who has his times for walking in the fields, and every man who can have such times should secure them, may find in this pocket volume a very intelligent and agreeable companion.

The Taming of Horses, by J. T. RAREY.-So the secret of Mr. Rarey's system, about which people have been going so wild, is before the world at last. In spite of all the ten-guinea pupils' bonds it has oozed out. It seems that some few years ago, when Mr. Rarey was as yet unknown to fame, he wrote a little book on his art, and now that enterprising Mr. Routledge has got hold of it, and sells it for sixpence; (Tattersall was charging his customers half a guinea for the same thing ;) and a very good sixpennyworth it is. But now people cry out as if they had been swindled, and say,—There is nothing in it after all; we knew all this before ; it is nothing but common sense.' We say there is everything in the world in it. If the prophet had bid thee do some great thing, oh ingenuous public, wouldest thou not have done it? And now because there is no hocus pocus, no galvanism, nor magnetism, nor any other ism, forsooth you have been greatly deceived. 'Out upon the false prophet!

One of Mr. Rarey's pupils, in a letter to the Times, certifies that the little book contains more than can be taught in the lesson for which he paid his money; and another writes to contradict him. With the former we must agree, for though the book gives the clue to the system, and a sketch of it, it would be a great satisfaction to a man, before he went into the stable where his own particular Cruiser was loose and rampant, to see how this master of his art managed his approach ; how he held the horse with his eye; how cautiously, firmly, and quietly be advanced towards him. Mr. Briggs is before the public as a warning in the pages of Punch. Ourselves know two young gentlemen, one laid up with a bad kick in the leg, and another who had his shoulder put out, all owing to this little book. Not one in a hundred of Mr. Rarey's pupils who have paid their ten guineas, and watched Cruiser and him with all their eyes,


man enough to undertake the subjugation of a high spirited, vicious horse; much more one who has only studied the system in this condensed and imperfect form.

After all there is nothing but common sense in the book, but then that common sense happens to be no common thing. Patience, gentleness, and firmness are the watchwords which we hope will spread all over the land as the heralds of peace and good will to horses. But the art isn't to be learnt in an hour. A man must serve his apprenticeship to it. It requires a rare combination of good qualities to make a perfect horseman. One must have a perfect command of himself to begin with, judgment, presence of mind, courage, and a certain quickness of eye and hand, and rapidity of decision, which can only be acquired by long practice.

There is a flourish of trumpets at the beginning of this otherwise unpretentious little book, about the way in which the Greek and Roman young gentlemen used to ride ; but that one can see any day by going to the British Museum where Mr. Finch holds his court, the sculpture court. There you will see those noble youths with their hair nicely cut, sitting on the bare backs of their chargers, and guid. ing them with their hands; you will observe also that they do not sit badly considering they have not the advantages we possess of pig's skin and stirrups to keep them square and trig. A friend of ours doubts though, if they could go across country with the Blankshire hounds in that trim. Mr. Rarey's three fundamental principles may be all resolved into one; viz., that a horse must learn a thing before he can know it. He doesn't know what man wants him to do till he is taught. He does not know his strength till some one pulls him. He doesn't know that a thing will hurt him before it has done so. He is, in fact, a perfect example of Locke's blank sheet of paper - you may write what you like upon him. A pretty scrawl most folks make of it!

What is the first thing a breaker does with a raw colt? He drives and bullies him into a house (dark very likely, and dreadful looking in the eyes of the timid animal), which takes a long time generally, men shouting, and running, and scaring him with their arms, and the colt bolting and starting this way and that, till at last he bolts into the house to escape the worse dangers outside. Of course sensible men proceed more sensibly. Then you must get a halter that slips ; a rope halter that will tumble him if he gives trouble, and when you have got him into this (which I promise you shall by a lesson in patience), you can smack a whip about him two or three times, which will nearly make him fly out of his skin, to punish him for having caused you so much fatigue. He doesu't know what you are whipping him for, but you do, and you are hot and angry, so it's all right. Then drag him out. You must have an army of men now to hang on to the rope, (just to teach him his strength) which must be a pretty tough one, while you with your whip drive the poor frightened brute round and round. When he gets giddy, or tired, or sulky, as he is almost sure to, after you have been at him some time, just rattle a stick in your hat, and that will set him off again at a tangent, very likely pulling your men all down in a heap like a game of French and English. Defend us from such games! Well, so the thing goes on in England every day, sometimes better, and oftentimes worse. What wonder then at the vicious horses, or the accidents they occasion, when this is their entrance into public life.

We do not quite assent to the blank paper theory though. A colt knows a thing or two before you begin with it. That wicked old mare,

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