To Rise in Darkness: Revolution, Repression, and Memory in El Salvador, 1920–1932
To Rise in Darkness offers a new perspective on a defining moment in modern Central American history. In January 1932 thousands of indigenous and ladino (non-Indian) rural laborers, provoked by electoral fraud and the repression of strikes, rose up and took control of several municipalities in central and western El Salvador. Within days the military and civilian militias retook the towns and executed thousands of people, most of whom were indigenous. This event, known as la Matanza (the massacre), has received relatively little scholarly attention. In To Rise in Darkness, Jeffrey L. Gould and Aldo A. Lauria-Santiago investigate memories of the massacre and its long-term cultural and political consequences.
Gould conducted more than two hundred interviews with survivors of la Matanza and their descendants. He and Lauria-Santiago combine individual accounts with documentary sources from archives in El Salvador, Guatemala, Washington, London, and Moscow. They describe the political, economic, and cultural landscape of El Salvador during the 1920s and early 1930s, and offer a detailed narrative of the uprising and massacre. The authors challenge the prevailing idea that the Communist organizers of the uprising and the rural Indians who participated in it were two distinct groups. Gould and Lauria-Santiago demonstrate that many Communist militants were themselves rural Indians, some of whom had been union activists on the coffee plantations for several years prior to the rebellion. Moreover, by meticulously documenting local variations in class relations, ethnic identity, and political commitment, the authors show that those groups considered “Indian” in western El Salvador were far from homogeneous. The united revolutionary movement of January 1932 emerged out of significant cultural difference and conflict.
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113 He was also the only candidate to campaign in the countryside . 114 Tacuba
, Atiquisaya , Masahuat , Cuisnahuat , Armenia , Izalco , Juayúa , and Sonsonate
, towns that would play a central role in the revolt of 1932 , all had strong ...
A smallholder was their candidate for mayor , and laborers on the cane and
coffee fincas were the candidates for regidores . The municipal secretary
reported no violence at the demonstration , which according to her “ lasted a long
Thus , for example , Antonio Calvo , capitán mayor of the National Guard in Izalco
, wrote to the departmental commander that according to his informants the
Communist candidate for mayor , the candidates for regidores , and their
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