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prayers ! Tell us the way to life, and lead us in it! Care for us! Be just to us! Let us not live and die the victims of sin! Help us to break the chains that hang so heavily on our hearts, that we may follow Christ, and go with you to heaven!”
3rd. If God made the sea, then sailors, as well as other men, ought to make it their study. “ They that go down to the sea in ships, that do business in great waters, these see the works of the Lord, and his wonders in the deep.” Rise above the level of your class, brethren, and make yourselves familiar with the lessons of the sea. Study the philosophy of its storms, the history of its living creatures, the beautiful varieties of its vegetable life, and its profound natural theology, written by the finger of God, in the deepest pages of creation! It is said " that truth lies in a well." It is deeper; it lies in the unfathomed ocean. But it need not be for ever hid. Let seamen bring it up to the light, that other men may blush at their own ignorance, and admire the depths of the divine wisdom and goodness. Go down and bring up the pearls and diamonds of truth, and be richer than kings with their crowns and sceptres !
4th. The sea belongs to God, and reveals his perfections. Then let all seamen love and serve him before the world. Your social influence is coextensive with the whole social state-let your piety be so too. Let the heaithful savour of Christian love and purity be around you, as a balo from heaven. Too long has the great “ dragon of the sea” ruled you. Too long have the four beasts of the Apocalypse been seen on the deep !--the beast of intemperance! the beast of sensuality! the beast of profaneness ! and the beast of strife! This night let me urge you to do battle to them all. Draw on them “the sword of the Spirit.” Begin a warfare that shall end in their destruction, and your eternal triumph! “ Overcome them by the blood of the Lamb.” First be yourselves washed in that fountain, and be made immortal for your conflict.
Your voyage will soon be over. There is a haven “where there is no more sea,”—no more treachery, fluctuation, nor shipwreck. Oh! there is a sea of glass mingled with fire,-a symbol of the atoning blood,-all pure and purifying; by it stand the redeemed, “harping with their harps.” There may you stand, also, above the changes of mortal enterprise and mortal life, with “the Captain of Salvation,” there to sing in everlasting gratitude to him,
“I'm safe in the port of the blest,
Time's tide is all ebbing away ;
seas I did stray.
Secure from the rage of the main ;
THE ARCTIC EXPEDITION.
(Concluded from page 57.) August 13, a.m.-Fine; wore, to stand back to the shoal. Shoaled our water thirteen fathoms, and at ten I imagined I saw breakers on the lee bow. Ship refused stays; wore, but had no less water at midnight; passed over the tail of the bank in eight fathoms, five miles N.W. of our former position. Continued to stand to the eastward until I could weather the south end of the shoal; then tacked, passing, in sixteen fathoms, three miles south of our first position. When I bore up north to fix its western edge, a slight easterly current took me rather farther in that direction than I intended. I have, however, confined it within a radius of five miles.
The weather would not allow of our anchoring so as to make a closer examination of the shoal with our boats, and the sea was too heavy and hollow to attempt taking the ship herself into less water. In approaching the shoal, the bottom changes from sand to fine sand, and when in the least water coarse gravel and stones. We found nothing less than seven fathoms; but I am of opinion that a bank exists which would bring a ship up.
August 14.-We experienced very strong, variable, and S.E. breezes, with rain, until midnight of the 14th, when the wind changed to the westward, and brought with it fine weather. Continued to stand to northward and westward until noon on the 15th, being in latitude 71° 12' and long. 170° 10'; bore up west half south, passing several pieces of drift wood. Our soundings increased as we left the bank (westerly) to twenty-five fathoms, mud.
August 16.— Wind very variable in strength, and direction S.S.W. to S.E. Large flocks of phalaropes, divers and gulls numerous. At midnight wind very fresh from S.S.E. ; steering W.S.W.; depth decreasing to ten fathoms.
Åt 3 a.m., the 17th of August, the temperature of the sea suddenly fell from 40° to 36°; the wind became light, and excessively cold. Shortened sail, supposing that I was very near the ice; frequent snow showers.
At 5 a.m. wind shifted suddenly from the Ñ.W.in a sharp squall with heavy snow. Shortly after 8, when one of these snow storms cleared off, the packed ice was seen from the masthead from S.S.W. to N.N.W., five miles distant. The weather was so bad that I bore up for the rendezvous. The weather, however, as suddenly cleared up. I hauled my wind for the north-western extreme of the ice that had been seen. At 9.40 the exciting report of “ Land-ho!” was made from the masthead; they were both soon afterwards crowded.
In running a course along the pack towards our first discovery, a small group of islands was reported on our port beam, a considerable distance within the outer margin of the ice.
The pack here was not so close as I had found it before. Lanes of water could be seen reaching almost up to the group, but too narrow to enter unless the ship had been sufficiently fortified to force a hole for herself.
These small islands at intervals were very distinct, and were not considered at the time very distant.
Still more distant than this group (from the deck) a very extensive and high land was reported, which I had been watching for some time, and anxiously awaited a report from some one else. There was a fine clear atmosphere (such a one as can only be seen in this climate), except in the direction of this extended land, where the clouds rolled in numerous immense masses, occasionally leaving the very lofty peaks uncapped, where could be distinctly seen columns and pillars, very broken, which is characteristic of the higher headlands in this sea—East Cape and Cape Lisburne, for example.
With the exception of the N.E. and S.E. extremes, none of the lower land could be seen, unless, indeed, what I took at first for a small group of islands within the pack edge was a point of this great land.
This island or point was distant twenty-five miles from the ship’s track, higher parts of the land seen not less, I consider, than sixty. When we hove to, off the first land seen, the northern extreme of the great land showed out to the eastward for a moment, and so clear as to cause some who had doubts before to cry out, “ There, Sir, is the land quite plain."
From the time land was reported until we hove to under it, we ran twentyfive miles directly for it. At first we could not see that the pack joined it, but as we approached the island we found the pack to rest on the island, and to extend from it as far as the eye could reach to the E.S.E.
The weather, which had been fine all day, now changed suddenly to dense clouds and snow showers, blowing fresh from the south, with so much sea that I did not anchor as I intended.
I left the ship with two boats; the senior lieutenant, Mr. Maguire; Mr. Seemann, naturalist; and Mr. Collinson, mate, in one. Mr. Goodridge, surgeon; Mr. Pakenham, midshipman; and myself, in the other, almost despairing of being able to reach the island.
The ship kept off and on outside the thickest part of the loose ice, through which the boats were obliged to be very careful in picking their way, on the S.E. side, where I thought I might have ascended. We reached the island, and found running on it a very heavy sea; the first lieutenant, however, landed, having backed his boat in until he could get foothold (without swimming), and then jumped overboard. I followed his example; the others were anxious to do the same, but the sea was so high that I could not permit them.
We hoisted the jack and took possession of the island with the usual ceremonies, in the name of her nost gracious Majesty Queen Victoria.
The extent we had to walk over was not more than thirty feet. From this space, and a short distance that we scrambled up, we collected eight species of plants; specimens of the rock were also brought away.
With the time we could spare, and our materials, the island was perfectly inaccessible to us. This was a great disappointment to us, as from its summit, which is elevated above the sea 1,400 feet, much could have been seen, and all doubt set aside, more particularly as I knew the moment I got on board I should be obliged to carry sail to get off the pack and out of the bight of it we were in; neither could I expect that at this late period of the season the weather would improve.
The island on which I landed is four miles and a half in extent east and west, and about two and a half north and south, in the shape of a triangle, the western end being its apex. It is almost inaccessible on all sides, and a solid mass of granite. Innumerable black and white divers (common to this sea) here found a safe place to deposit their eggs and bring up their young ; not a walrus or seal was seen on its shore, or on the ice in its vicinity. We observed here none of the small land birds that were so numerous about us before making the land.
It becomes a nervous thing to report a discovery of land in these regions without actually landing on it, after the unfortunate mistake to the southward; but as far as a man can be certain, who has 130 pair of eyes to assist him, and all agreeing, I am certain we have discovered an extensive land. I think, also, it is more than probable that the peaks we saw are a continuation of the range of mountains seen by the natives off Cape Jakan (coast of Asia), mentioned by Baron Wrangell in his Polar Voyages. I returned to the ship at 7 p.m., and very reluctantly made all the sail we could carry from this interesting neighbourhood to the south-east, the wind at the time allowing me to lie just clear of the pack.
August 18.—Towards the morning we had a very strong wind, with constant snow storms and excessive cold. The wind having changed to northward left me no choice but to return to my rendezvous for the boats.
August 20.-Sighted Cape Lisburne in a thick fog; hauled off to await clear weather; passed several carcases of whales.
August 21.-At 2 p.m. again made the Cape, found the high land heavily covered with snow, and the low land partially. Very threatening weather ; remained off and on until noon of the 23rd, when we anchored in fourteen fathoms, about twenty-five miles to the southward of the Cape. Here I landed, accompanied by the naturalist and several officers. I erected a mark and buried a bottle. A beautiful stream of water ran into this bay. The naturalist had a good harvest on its banks, which were literally covered with flowers, removed only a few feet from what I considered to be perpetual snow. Quantities of coal were also found here.
There were about forty natives, all of whom we had seen before, very poor and miserable looking, but very friendly. They all had their bows and quivers with them, but on coming up to us placed them behind them.
Finding a line drawn on the sand so useful as a boundary for their approach at Wainwright's Inlet, I again had recourse to it, which they respected as before. I made them all presents, and returned to the ship in the evening just before she was enveloped in a dense fog.
August 24, a.m.-Weighed, with a light air from the north-east, and clear (hot) weather ; running for Point Hope, where I intended to build another mark, if the Plover had not already done it.
At 1 p.m. sighted off the low land the Nuncy Dawson yacht and the Owen. Mr. Shedden came on board, accompanied by Mr. Martin, the second master of the Plover, who had been sent back by Mr. Pullen in charge of the two large boats of the expedition. I learned from Mr. Martin that he had arrived at the anchorage off Point Hope on the 19th instant, in company with the yacht, and was preparing to start again north in the Owen, sending the other boats back in charge of the yacht to Kotzebue Sound.
The boats, after leaving the Plover, on the 25th of July, were detained a day or two by the ice betore reaching Point Barrow ; found the natives most friendly, and anxious to assist them in every way. The boats were accompanied as far as Point Barrow by the yacht. This vessel had many escapes. She was pressed on shore once; ran on shore on another occasion to the eastward of Point Barrow, and was only got off by the assistance of the natives, who manned her capstan and hove with great goodwill
. On another occasion she parted her bower cable from the pressure of the ice that came suddenly down on her, and had a narrow escape of a severe squeeze. She recovered her anchor and cable. Mr. Shedden erected a mark in Refuge Inlet, where he also intended to have left some provisions, but the natives were too numerous to do so without their knowing it.
He found another small inlet, a short distance south of Refuge Inlet, in lat. 71° 5', where he buried from his own store a large cask of flour and a large cask of preserved meats. At Refuge Inlet he left information as to the position of these casks.
Nothing could exceed the kindness of Mr. Shedden to those in the boats, in supplying them with everything his vessel could afford, and in following them with considerable risk. His crew were, unfortunately, a most disaffected set. He had too many of them for so small a vessel.
The boats all reached Dease's Inlet on the evening of the 3rd, but were detained until the 5th by strong winds.
Their time, however, was well employed in stowing their boats and a “ baidar” Mr. Pullen bought at Point Barrow. They were fairly away on the afternoon of the 5th, having with them 100 days' provisions, besides ten cases of pemmican; this little expedition then consisted of two 27-foot whale boats, and one native baidar, manned with fourteen persons in all. (See margin.) *
I have sent their lordships copies of Mr. Pullen's letters, both public and private, that have been received since his departure. From them they will gain more information than I could afford.
Through these letters their lordships will also see with what a noble and proper spirit Lieutenant Pullen undertook his voyage, being nevertheless fully alive to its dangers and exposure.
I am quite sure their lordships, when they appointed Mr. Pullen, were fully aware of his character and capabilities. I trust, however, that they will not consider the following comments out of place :-
I don't know any officer more capable of conducting with success such an expedition. He possesses health, great bodily strength, and endurance,
* The margin of the original MS. Not published.
ability, and great decision of character. Coupled with all these good points in their leader, the boats had an open sea and a fair wind, so that I have no apprehensions as to their reaching one of the Hudson Bay's establishments on the Mackenzie, early in this season, though not sufficiently early to return to Kotzebue Sound this year.
Dease and Simpson certainly made their voyage from the Mackenzie to Point Barrow and back in one season, but then they travelled west at the commencement of the season, and returned to the eastward at its close, when the winds prevailed from the westward. Our boats would have to return to the westward at the latter part of the season, which I believe to be impossible from the packing of the ice, the heavy westerly winds and currents.
Mr. Pullen's letter says pretty plainly that he will not return; he will therefore be awaiting their lordship's instructions at York Factory.
August 24.- We hove to off Point Hope towards midnight in very dirty weather.
August 25.-- In the morning stood in. Sent a boat to the yacht to tell her I thought she was in a very dangerous anchorage, with the wind, as it then was, from the S.S.E. Ordered the two longer boats out immediately. Finding the weather still more threatening, I hoisted the Plover's boat in, being handier for my tackles than the Owen, determining to go myself north in the ship.
Provisioned the Owen, and despatched her, in company with the yacht, to Kotzebue Sound, supposing the Plover to have gone thither. I desired Commander Moore to employ her in the examination of the Buckland River. We had a calm in the afternoon, with heavy rollers, without any apparent
We fortunately were two or three miles off the land. Had the yacht and boats remained at their anchorage they certainly would have been driven on shore without my being able to render them any assistance.
A fresh breeze from the southward released us from this unpleasant position. We just scraped clear of the shoal off Point Hope, and bore up northerly, parting company with the yacht and the Owen.
August 27.- Continued to run to the northward until 6 a.m. of this day. Had an increasing breeze from S.S.E., with frequent snow showers. Hove to for fine weather. By 9 a.m. we were reduced to a close-reefed maintopsail and staysail, having washed away one of our quarter-boats. I have never seen so hollow or distressing a sea for a ship—no small decked boat could have lived in it. It was, therefore, fortunate that I had arrived at Point Hope before the Owen started again north, and that I had decided on sending her to Kotzebue Sound.
I kept the ship heading in for the land, hoping that this gale, like our former ones, would be of short duration, and that I might again' look into Wainwright's Inlet. The only alteration, however, in the weather was that the gale from S.S.E. ceased, in about twelve hours, and shifted to north-west and west, from which points it blew gales, bringing with them excessive cold weather, with strong squalls and heavy falls of snow.
August 27.- In standing to the westward we observed, at 10 p.m., the ice blink was very strong from north to north-west, about fifteen miles from us; wore, hoping to weather Blossom Shoal at least forty miles.
August 28.- Wore in eleven fathoms on the shoal tħis morning, having nine fathoms before we trimmed. Had a current north 84o east, setting thirtysix miles in eighteen hours. Wind west.
Finding it impossible to remain on the coast, I began to work off with all the sail the ship would carry. My crew were necessarily much exposed in making and shortening sail, and suffered a good deal from colds and rheumatism. I was also shorthanded, having been obliged to send ten men to the Plover, besides those I discharged at Oahu.
On the morning of the 31st I again stood in for Point Hope, but finding there was no landing there I bore up for Kotzebue Sound.