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institutes of technology and polytechnic institutes, are the colleges of the twentieth century which will do most for their students, which will be in closest touch with the needs of civilization, which will provide at once the most cultural, the most rational and the most scientific instruction. These institutions, by whatsoever name designated, will be the important colleges of the future, because they will give that perfect unity of thought and action, that harmony of theory and practice, which the educational needs of the future demand.

PRINCIPLES GOVERNING THE DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT OF ENGINEERING

BUILDINGS.

BY WILLIAM G. RAYMOND, Dean of the College of Applied Science, The State University of Iowa.

Something less than a year ago, the writer of this paper was delegated to visit the several modern buildings devoted to engineering instruction in this country, with a view to discovering their good and weak points. The information gained was to be used in designing an engineering building for the State University of Iowa, at Iowa City.

It was noticed that each building had some one or more good points on which stress was laid by its occupants, and that these good points were by no means the same in the different buildings. Just as a dwelling house is frequently designed about a handsome hall, or dining room, or conservatory, or other single feature, so other buildings, and notably, engineering buildings, seem to have been designed about one or more principal features. In one group of buildings pretty much everything was sacrificed to a north-lighted, narrow drawingroom; in another an auditorium and a steam laboratory under glass with a surrounding gallery from which susceptible legislators might view the busy scene below, were points of excellence. Some have simply grown, without any particularly excellent features except economy of space, every corner being utilized to the utmost. In another commodious offices or studies for the instructors were the principal feature; and one only, the most costly of all those visited, seemed to have been planned to secure as many as possible of the desirable features of the others, along with some excellent individualities of its own.

One peculiar feature of almost every building visited was that it was outgrown by the time it was finished.

The following brief paper is intended to formulate the ideas gained during the inspection of existing buildings. These ideas are stated somewhat didactically as principles to be observed in the designing of a plant for engineering instruction. No attempt is made to consider details.

The principles of design are based upon the fact that the work of an undergraduate faculty is, first, teaching; second, research. Therefore, an engineering building should be designed, first, for teaching, and second, for research. For teaching only so much equipment in the way of machinery should be provided as is needed for illustration. The object of the school should be to teach principles rather than to provide skilled workmen.

For courses other than civil engineering, four shops should be provided, woodworking, forge, machine and foundry. For research work four laboratories are required, steam, hydraulic, material testing and electrical; these in addition to the ordinary physical laboratory. For teaching, these four laboratories are not absolutely essential. The shops should be separate from the building devoted to lecture and recitation, but conveniently located; if possible, connected by covered ways.

The main building should be designed much larger than is needed at the time of building, and so that it can be built in sections, as growth demands.

Shops and drawing-rooms should have a lecture space. There should be a library and reading-room, and a good-sized auditorium that can be enlarged.

The drawing-rooms should be long and narrow, or else lighted from the top. Individual space for each student should be provided for study and drawing. There should be one or more large drawing-rooms with top light for free-hand sketching and architectural drawing.

A mechanician and his shop are almost absolutely essential. There should be janitor's quarters and store rooms.

There should be comfortable, furnished offices for all instructors.

All study and recitation space, with the exception of a few lecture rooms for large classes, should be designed for sections of not more than twenty to twentyfive students.

Shops should be preferably electrically driven, partly through shafting and partly direct connected.

The building should be fireproof. The architecture should be pleasing and the material for the main building as handsome and permanent as funds will permit.

The furniture need not be luxurious, but should be far from cheap.

DISCUSSION. PROFESSOR EDGAR MARBURG: As I understand it, all instruction is to be given to any given student in the same place. It seems to me that to have a class divided into a number of sections would be impracticable in many colleges.

PROFESSOR RAYMOND: The students remain stationary. The teacher goes to the student instead of the student going to the teacher.

PROFESSOR MARBURG: The point is this: It seems to me that it is very essential to provide an adequate and quiet place which may be accessible to each student at all times. If he has to move out or make way for another section that ideal is not realized. It appears to me that a man should be unrestricted at all times of the day.

PROFESSOR RAYMOND: That is exactly what is provided here.

PROFESSOR MARBURG: Each class has to be provided with a great many sections.

PROFESSOR I. O. BAKER: While the classes have field practice their rooms are unoccupied according to this plan and it seems to me that is a needless extravagance and a wrong idea because of extravagance.

PROFESSOR ARTHUR L. WILLISTON: With twenty-four students in every class, all taking the regular work, all studying the same subject, and without any special students at all in the college-which would be the most remarkable condition of affairs, unless the situation in Iowa is very different from that in other places-I should think that the building which Professor Raymond has designed and the plan which he has described would work admirably. But if there are not students enough in any class or section to fill a room, and if the conditions were such that it was necessary to have students from two different classes in the same room at the same time for reasons of economy, I should think that there would be great confusion.

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