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the different districts are visited. The class as a whole may be engaged first upon the one kind of work and then upon the other; or the class may be divided so that one section may work on surface while the other works underground, changing about either by half days or whole days.

The surface work consists in studying the general surface equipment of a mining plant from an engineering standpoint, and making sketches from which working drawings can be made of the most important features.

The underground work consists in studying the methods of getting out the ore and controlling and handling the overburden. Sketch maps of the mines are made by the pacing method for the purpose of learning the mine.

The sketches of both surface and underground are criticised by the instructors and inked in by the students in the evening.

UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN SUMMER SCHOOL

OF SURVEYING.

BY LEONARD S. SMITH,
Associate Professor of Topographic and Geodetic Engineering,

University of Wisconsin.

The Wisconsin Summer School of Surveying was organized ten years ago, so that its organization and methods have had a fair trial. Advantage has been taken of each year's results to introduce such changes as experience showed were desirable.

It should be noted that the best organization for a particular summer school of surveying will depend upon the character and amount of the theoretical and field work introduced in regular term time. This term work is largely dependent upon the environment of the school in question.

At Wisconsin, the engineering school is located in a city of twenty-five thousand inhabitants. The campus, of about six hundred acres, has a frontage on Lake Mendota* of over a mile, with elevations exceeding one hundred feet above it. The environment and climate allow of a considerable amount of field work during both the first and last nine weeks of the school year, distributed as follows: in the freshman year four and in the sophomore year six actual hours per week during the period above stated. This time is used in learning the adjustments of the various topographic instruments, the determination of their constants and capabilities and a moderate amount of practice in using them in land, city, hydrographic and topographic surveys. This practice of course is given in connection with the class-room work. While sufficient to introduce the instruments to the student and to teach a method, it falls far short of being sufficient to secure proficiency in the use of the instruments, and the proper keeping of the field notes.

* This lake has a shore line of twenty miles.

The securing of this skill, both in accuracy and in speed of field operation is, in the opinion of the writer, one of the important objects of the summer school of surveying. Such a school also creates and stimulates the professional spirit of the student, giving him enthusiasm for the less interesting but perhaps more fundamental studies of his course.

At first the Wisconsin Summer School had its headquarters at the university. A base line on the campus was measured and a triangulation was expanded to cover the adjacent lakes, with the necessary astronomical work. This work was executed by the junior students, while the sophomores did the necessary field work for the topographic and hydrographic mapping of the region. These maps were then published by the state survey. As the work was done about commencement time, it was found that there were too many side attractions for satisfactory results.

During the past five years the summer school has been held at Portage, a city of six thousand inhabitants on the Wisconsin River, and distant about forty miles from the university. Transportation to Portage is furnished at reduced rates in a special car, this also insuring the protection of the valuable apparatus. The entire expense to the students for the four weeks of the field work, including transportation and living expenses, does not exceed twenty-five dollars.

Organization of the Party.— The work is in the general charge of three members of the engineering faculty, but the immediate charge is vested in a student “chief engineer” elected by the junior class. The students have never failed to select the man best qualified for this position.

The chief engineer appoints the various chiefs of party, which are changed every week so that nearly every one has a chance of sharing this responsibility and of learning its duties.

Carefully checked inventories of the apparatus are made both on going and returning, and a custodian of property is appointed, who issues equipment to party chiefs upon their signing a proper receipt. All damage to instruments, or loss of apparatus, is charged to the student causing the same.

The number of students in a party varies with the kind of work, but it is intended to assign that number which will insure a maximum amount of instrumental work per student. Level parties comprise two and topographic parties three members. As a rule the transit-man records his own notes and sketches in a specially prepared field book. Extra pains are taken to insure good sketching, which includes the contouring relatively correct and the platting by estimation of each topographic shot taken.

No attempt is made to draw a map in the field except in the case of the plane table topography. Every evening and on rainy days members of each party make such computations as may be necessary to check the accuracy of the preceding field work. This includes the reduction of horizontal and vertical components of stadia shots and the closing in latitude, departure and elevation of the stadia traverses. A record is kept of such results.

This and other office work is carried on in two large and well-lighted rooms of the city hall, placed at the disposal of the survey, through the courtesy of the mayor. It is only fair to the boys to state that they show their appreciation of this favor by taking the best of care of the rooms.

Each evening the chiefs of party prepare a detailed report of the day's work, frequently accompanied by suggestions for the next day's assignment. These reports are considered by the chief engineer as soon after supper as possible, and new assignments for the following day are posted. This enables the chief of each party to secure all needed information and data regarding the next day's assignment and necessary for the successful prosecution of the work.

The platting of the final maps of the survey has in the past been done in the above rooms, largely during rainy weather, but beginning with the present year a week will be spent in the drafting rooms at the university immediately following the three weeks of field work. It is hoped that this arrangement will improve the quality of the drafting work.

Character of the Work.– The character of summer school surveying work must depend largely upon the location of the school. Portage lies in a glacial moraine

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