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ters were secured at the summer hotels located on the lakes, frequently at such distances from the work that a steam yacht was required for transportation. Astronomical observations for time and azimuth, and sometimes for latitude, were made each year, beginning in 1878. The stadia replaced the chain and contours were added to the topography. A base line was measured each year with the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey secondary bars, and also with a five hundred-foot steel tape on the later work. Meanwhile the New York state triangulation had been extended over the areas, so that all the surveys have been connected with it. Precise levels have been carried along with the later surveys, starting at first from bench marks along the Erie canal and afterwards from those of the U. S. Geological Survey.
The field maps are platted on detail paper from computed coordinates to a scale of four hundred feet to the inch. Much of the sketching is done directly upon the sheets, some of it with plane table. The triangulation is computed and plotted by latitudes and longitudes, to a scale of one thousand feet to the inch as the basis for the completed map of the year's work on the reduced scale. Finally those for each lake are combined and quite a number of them have been published.
In 1898 it was decided to take up the survey of the Fall Creek watershed. This stream is about thirty miles long and has a drainage area of some one hundred and twenty square miles. It flows through the gorge containing the new hydraulic laboratory and thus affords an excellent opportunity for the study of the run off of the stream. The divide line is carefully picked out with hand level and run with transit and the area inclosed in the water shed each year computed.
No summer hotels are available on this watershed and transportation is slow and expensive. This forced us to go into camp. We were thus able to locate each year in the center of the area to be surveyed and to practically cut out all cost for daily transportation to work, the distances being short enough for walking. The first year a caterer boarded the men by the week. Now we purchase our own provisions and hire a caterer to do the work. This is more satisfactory as the men realize that they are having what they pay for and that they are at liberty, through the commissary, to cheapen cost or improve quality as their pocketbooks may warrant.
With the gradual development of the course of instruction in the college came the feeling on the part of the faculty that the two weeks taken from the end of each of the junior and senior years was needed for class-room work. A compromise was finally effected by relieving the seniors and extending the time for the juniors to three and one half weeks. This afforded some relief, but when the course of study was revised in 1902 there was no longer room for the survey in term time. The result is that the class-room instruction is now carried to the examination period, the junior examinations are placed early in that period and the men taken directly to the field for four and one half weeks. About half of this time is taken from the commencement period and one half from the vacation proper, the work closing two and a half weeks after commencement. This change has been in effect for two years with satisfactory results. Last year the juniors who were able to secure summer positions was considerably reduced.
In conclusion: The survey is organized on the basis of securing results, and not on the basis of solving problems. In other terms each problem is a new one and its solution aids in securing a completed whole.
The field maps and data obtained each year are worked up as class-room work and a final map made.
The student chief engineer makes out the orders, assigns the men to work, and receives their reports.
The student commissary looks after provisioning the camp.
The camp and the area surveyed each year are new to the instructors and to the students.
The topography is by parties, each having a plat to complete. The triangulation, precise levels, etc., are more in common, but each man or party is required to check his or its own work as far as possible.
An instructing force of four is provided for some sixty-five men; much of the oversight is general, while it is at times specific, the instructor acting as chief of party.
DISCUSSION ON THE THREE PRECEDING PAPERS AND ON
THE TOPIC "SUMMER SCHOOLS OF SURVEYING." PRESIDENT HOWE: How many summers does each student work at the University of Wisconsin?
DEAN TURNEAURE: Only one summer, and the student is permitted to select which vacation he will do the work in.
PROFESSOR RAYMOND: I understand from Professor Smith's paper that the sophomores do part and the juniors another part.
DEAN TURNEAURE: As a general rule.
PROFESSOR RAYMOND: But no one student ever does it all?
DEAN TURNEAURE: We have just made a change in the program. The paper describes what was done in the past. Under that arrangement we required two weeks' work at the end of each of two years, junior and sophomore, but in the future we will require four weeks for one year only, and will give the student his choice as to which summer he will work.
PROFESSOR SPERR: I don't understand the answer to the question exactly, as to whether each student does some or all of the work.
DEAN TURNEAURE: In the past each student has done all kinds of work if present during both summers. We have found it desirable, however, to accept outside engineering work for one of the vacation periods of two weeks. In the future we will probably accept professional work for about one half of the field work, so that in some cases the students will not cover all of the work, but in general each student does get practice in all of the work.
PROFESSOR SPERR: My question more particularly is, whether each student will occupy each different position of that period successively.
DEAN TURNEAURE: Yes; that is definitely arranged.
PROFESSOR SPERR: And perform some feature of the work?
DEAN TURNEAURE: Yes.
PROFESSOR SPERR: In geodetic work, for instance, will they do some practical work in geodesy, or will they be given credit for putting in four weeks in practical work, even though they may not have performed geodetic work?
DEAN TURNEAURE: Equivalents for this work from practical experience have to be accepted in a sort of general way. We cannot expect the student to get all varieties of work in practice, but there is great pressure to substitute outside work, especially where a student must earn money during the summer, and we do not think it best to hold too rigidly to the exact kind of field work given in the course.
PROFESSOR SPERR: Are they subsequently given an examination to ascertain whether they have become more proficient in the principles involved by reason of their practical work?
DEAN TURNEAURE: The character of the practical work is always inquired into. As a matter of fact the amount of practical work offered is usually three or four times as much as the required summer work. It may be railroad work, and often is level or topographic work on the U. S. Geological Survey. A statement from the employer is required.
PROFESSOR SPERR: The men who have had this practical work are liable to be weak on the general principles. The purpose for which we conduct the summer work is that the men shall better understand the principles of surveying, and from that point of view we are continually inclined to give less credit for outside practical work.
PRESIDENT HOWE: I am interested in these papers, because during the past year we have been discussing the practice term and getting all the information we could from catalogues so as to frame a practice term