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The course of instruction is progressive, and each survey prepares the student to some extent for those that follow. For example, at the beginning much time is devoted to pacing, ranging lines with sight poles, leveling with the hand level, and to a topographical survey based on pacing, ranging and hand leveling. Such a survey can be executed rapidly, and in it the student determines a large number of points, lines and levels, and gains a much wider experience in the rudiments of field work than is possible in the same time if accurate instrumental work be attempted. This survey forms an admirable introduction to work later with the plane table, and to the topographical work required in connection with the railroad survey, which surveys in turn introduce the student to other and more accurate topographical methods.
Again, at the beginning the work is planned in such a way that the accuracy of the student's measurements can be checked on each individual determination of distance, level, or direction, for which purpose the farm is covered with a large number of permanent monuments used as stations and bench marks. We consider this ability to check the student's work as vital, as thereby he can be compelled to use correct methods from the start. In addition, so far as it is possible, each survey is closed; so that the students have an independent check on the accuracy of their field work and computations, as in actual practice.
In the third place, we have a large equipment of instruments so that the survey squads are small, usually three men. Formerly we were able to give an instrument to every two men, but with the increasing size of the classes, we have been forced for the time being to make squads of three. With squads of two or three men, each student has ample opportunity to become familiar with the manipulation of the instrument in use at the time. Further, a student who is learning the use of an instrument cannot handle a large number of assistants to advantage, or keep more than one or two others usefully employed.
Finally, the different squads are required to turn in finished maps and computations of all surveys before leaving camp and are not allowed to undertake a new survey with more than one unfinished report in their hands. The maps are not elaborate, as it is desired that the student shall spend as much time in field work and as little in office work as is compatible with an accurate and satisfactory presentation of the results.
PROFESSOR SPERR: Is that work carried on by men all in one class or by men of different classes ?
PROFESSOR MUNROE: The work lasts all summer, and the three classes, about two hundred men in all, report in six divisions at different dates. The work of the different divisions overlap so that at times there are as many as one hundred and thirty men in camp. For the individual student the work extends over two or three summers, according to the course of study taken. The first year includes the pacing survey, compass and chain work, and elementary work with the transit and wye-level. The second summer, the student undertakes more elaborate work with transit, wye-level, solar compass and plane table, and the civil engineers make an elaborate hydrographic survey, while the mining students lay out a mining claim and make a railroad survey. In the third year the students of civil engineering have a course in geodetic field work, and their railroad survey. For mining students the third summer includes geological field work and an underground survey taken in connection with the summer classes in geology and mining, and not at Camp Columbia.
DEAN TURNEAURE: I want to correct a misapprehension, if there is one, that we rely on this summer work for all our practice in surveying. This seems to be the case with a number of institutions from the remarks made here. Our facilities for doing field work at the university are good and a strong course is carried on during term time. Summer work is supplementary. It gives the students greater facility with instruments and valuable experience in party work.
PROFESSOR SWAIN: I want to ask Professor Munroe what sort of instructors attend to this summer work and whether the regular staff are employed for the purpose.
PROFESSOR MUNROE: The summer work is under the personal supervision of Professor Lovell, of the department of civil engineering.
The instruction is given by him and six assistants specially engaged for this summer work. These are recent graduates and sometimes undergraduates who are selected carefully for the work.
PROFESSOR Louis E. REBER: At the Pennsylvania State College there is a practice term of two weeks, immediately following commencement, for all the engineering departments. One hundred hours of instruction are given in this time. The civil engineers have one hundred hours surveying at the end of the freshman year; geodetic and topographical surveying at the end of the sophomore year; and hydrographic surveying and hydraulic measurements at the end of the junior year; and they also have testing materials in the junior summer school. The work in hydrographic surveying and hydraulic measurements is usually done at a place at some distance from the college where the conditions are favorable.
The mechanical and electrical engineering freshmen and sophomores have drawing, shop work, and some surveying. In their junior summer school the electrical students have testing materials and electric laboratory work. The mechanicals have testing materials and steam laboratory work.
In the freshman year the mining engineers have surveying. In the other years they may have work at the college or in the mines somewhere throughout the state. This work, except in special cases, is not intended to be different from work during the regular term time but is in addition to that, being merely supplemental.
Located as we are there is no difficulty in carrying on a large amount of field work during the college year. In the summer school surveying there is some class work in connection with it. In the mornings before students go to work they are given definite instructions with reference to their day's work. There is no regular examination for this work but the students are held up to the rigid requirements of the college the same as in term time and no absences of any kind whatsoever are permitted.
The work of this practice term is conducted by the same instructors as that of the regular college year, but as the numbers taking one kind of work at the same time are much larger, it is necessary to add to the force of assistants. These are frequently obtained from the graduating class.
This practice term begins immediately the day after commencement, thus adding two weeks to our college year. Only engineering students are held for these two weeks.
PROFESSOR SWAIN: How to conduct the courses in surveying is one of the difficult problems before engineering schools, and there are two ways of solving itby giving the courses entirely in the summer, or by giving them all during the term. The first plan, that of giving them in the summer, has the advantage of relieving the work of the term, and allowing more time to be given to other subjects, and of concentrating the field work; on the other hand, it has the disadvantages of interfering with summer work of students, of keeping many instructors engaged through the summer, and in this way it may put the civil engineering department at a disadvantage as compared with other departments. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is one of the schools that has adhered to the second system of doing all field work during the school year. Some institutions, perhaps, are not situated so that this can be done, but we have considered the matter very seriously at the institute, and have not as yet seen fit to change our method. We devote an entire day of each week to field work for each class, and by dividing the classes into sections, and assigning a different day for each section, we are able to obtain fairly good results. For instance, next year we expect to have for sophomore