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Gog; but the country itself is divided into three principalities : Rosh, Meschech and Tubal. The prophet afterward declares, that this prince shall bring a mighty army composed of different nations, whose names are the same as those mentioned in Genesis as the descendents of Japhet and Gomer; and the greater part of these nations, the subjects or allies of the prince of Rosh, Meschech and Tubal, are described as coming from the north.The name of Rosh our Hebraists will recognize as that which the English version renders “prince.” The Rabbi, however, is sustained by the Septuagint, De Wette, and Rosenmüller, in making it a proper name. This name is not found among the sons of Japhet. But we know, says the Rabbi, " that the first Czar of great Muscovy was called Rush, and that from him the empire takes its present name. We know, too, that in the early times, Russia was divided into three independent states; Russia proper; or, according to some authors, European Muscovy; Muscovy proper, or Eastern and Southern Russia ; and Tobolsk, or Northern Russia. These three states were finally reunited under the general name of Russia, and they enslaved many of the Tartar and Sclavonic tribes. Even Persia may be regarded

. as a dependent on Russia. Now the emperor of these three states, united, Rushy, Moschovy, and Tobolshky, (for that is the

true pronunciation,) and of the tributary or dependent countries, · is called in Scripture, Gog; and his empire Magog. It is very

probable that this name has been given to the state, because the population is chiefly descended from Magog, and Gog seems to be an abbreviation of Magog, applied to the chiefs of that empire.

“The Scriptures also mention specifically the names of the three states of which this empire is composed.Son of man, set thy

, face toward Gog, of the country of Magog, the prince of Rosh, Meshech, and Tubal.' Rosh is Russia, Meshech, Muscovy, and Tubal, Tobolsk. Another striking circumstance is, that no other country but Russia is composed of so many different nations. It is also said that these different nations, who are to march under the Russian standard, will be armed with ancient armor, shields, bows, arrows, javelins, and lances. Now, we know that, notwithstanding the immense extent of the Russian empire, it can bring into the field only five hundred thousand or six hundred thousand men who have been trained to the use of modern arms; and that the greater part of its troops still use the hand-missiles of ancient

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warfare. Thus, in this light also, the prophecy may be applied to Russia. It is also predicted, that the innumerable army of Gog shall be rent by intestine divisions. This prophecy is eminently applicable to Russia, for it is almost certain that Russia, once plunged into a universal war, will see Poland and other oppressed people, spring up at the first reverse of her fortune, to cast off her galling yoke.”

“ It is thus almost proved that Russia is the land of Magog, and that Nicholas, or one of his successors, is the Gog announced by the prophet, and that there is ground for presuming that the last days are not far distant. We should therefore be on our guard, and pray fervently, not to be overtaken by these events as by a thief in the night."

We cannot fully endorse the Rabbi's interpretations and applications of the prophecy in question. But we think there is in his remarks something worthy of notice. With all their errors and

. obstinacy, we cannot look with indifference upon this people, whose early history is the history of the Bible ; and whose present and coming history is enclosed in its prophetic pages. We sympathize with their earnest watching of the signs of the times for the coming of Judah's king. But we grieve at their unbelief and worldliness which still give a temporal, national, and earthly cast to all expectations and prayers. Nor can we look with any complacency upon that zeal for Judah, which fosters in him these expectations of an earthly Messiah, and an earthly conquest. The whole Millennarian interpretation, and much of the Christian zeal for the Jews, tends to divert their minds from that work of the Spirit which is the gracious coming of Messiah. Political convulsions, and all social changes are preparatory, we admit, to the predicted reign of Messiah. And a part of the plan may be the return of enough of the Jews to Palestine to make the literal fulfilment of prophecy strike the eye of infidelity itself. But Judah and the Gentile church must know that the Holy Spirit is to represent to the church her invisible Head, until this world shall close its history ; that until that time, they are “ blessed who have not seen, and yet have believed ;” that “they which are of faith, the same are Abraham's children," and so, heirs of all the promises. If his lineal descendants have a promise of restoration to Mount Zion, so have his spiritual descendants. If they are to have David on the throne, so are we. If they are to have

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a glorious temple of immense dimensions, and sacrifices are to smoke on its altars, we shall share it with our Christian-Jewish brethren. If Gog and Magog are to make war on the Lord's people, it will not be as Jews that they will be attacked. To us it seems preposterous. When is Israel to become a nation, settled, distinct, powerfully organized with its army, navy, fortresses, and wealth, the nėrve of war? In what country will the scattered tribes be settled, and become to Russian ambition so formidable an obstacle as to concentrate the wrath of that empire upon themselves? Will it be in Palestine ? That is not in the highway of the great Autocrat's favorite march to Constantinople or to Persia; to Mosul or to Calcutta. Our literalist brethren ask for a reasonable interpretation of the prophecies concerning Israel, yet unfulfilled. We ask the same. And we would ask, if they really believe that the Jews are again to become a warlike nation in Syria ? and if the conquests which animated the hearts of Ezekiel and John, when they predicted the destruction of Gog and Magog, were repetitions of those horrid scenes of carnage which have so long made heaven weep for man? We see something more consonant to the catholic and spiritual character of the New Testament, in all these assurances to holy men of every generation who wait for the salvation of God.


The grave and liberal-minded John Locke penned this sentence : “ Those have no right to be tolerated by the magistrates, who will not own and teach the right of tolerating all men in matters of mere religion.” But there has been progress in theory and practice upon this subject since the days of Locke. We would say to every Jesuit and Romish Cardinal in Christendom, - Intolerable as is your intolerance, it shall not exclude you

from toleration. Let the existing naturalization laws be modified, if they require it. Yet we say also, and in no spirit of bravado, let Catholic emigrants come if they please by millions, and with them, the wealth and learning of the hierarchy in such proportions as we have not yet seen; still we will not in the least modify our VOL. III.


avowed principles of religious freedom. We will write, print, and if need be, fight, in securing to the Romanist the free and lawful exercise of his religion, but he shall understand that protestant freedom of press and speech is no less dear to us.

It may be thought that the tyranny over men's eyes, as well their judgment, which has so long been practised in many parts of the old world, must of course be neutralized in our land; and that no probable increase of Romish influence can have any other effect than to render the protestant press more manly and bold. But there appears to us to be an excessive confidence in this respect. Freedom of the press and editorial independence are two things. The truth is, that to a sad extent the secular press of the land is silenced, either by party or private interest. Some time since, a gentleman visited a large number of political editors in the United States, for the purpose of persuading them to publish well authenticated extracts from history, shewing the influence of Romanism on government, together with temperate original articles on the subject. He stated that only about twenty, out of two hundred, would consent to do anything of the kind.

At the West, attempts have been made to muzzle the pulpit, as well as the press. The local influence of slavery, in trammelling the pen and the tongue, has been yet more decided. But neither the ejectment of free presses, nor Congressional violence, has arrested the discussion of this difficult and delicate subject. Wise counsels and right principles are prevailing more and more extensively; and if, in the continued struggles, God save the North from infatuation, he will doubtless save the South from destruction.

The removal of censorship to such an extent from the European press within a year past, has awakened the liveliest interest in this country ; while editorial licentiousness, particularly in France, suggests the inquiry, What is true freedom of speech and the press ? It is the privilege of uttering with the tongue, or in print, whatever a person pleases, provided it be not criminal. It is the absence of all direct restrictions ; - every one having the

option of saying what he will, with the understanding that he is amenable to justice for his acts in this respect, as well as in every other. It is freedom from all previous legal constraint, not from

. a penalty in case of abuse.

In order that this liberty may be enjoyed in its legitimate fulness, without degenerating into licentiousness, it is necessary

that all regulating enactments be particularly explicit, and be promptly executed. And that such enactments should exist, is as plain as that the public good ought to be secured by legislative regulations, bearing in any respect upon the conduct of citizens. The law must shield a man's good name, as well as his life and limb. Malicious defamation is a public wrong, and the public peace, as well as private comfort, being involved in every instance of libel, the pen of the libeller ought to be restrained as well as the band of the assassin. The stability of government must also, within certain limits, be defended from the wanton attacks of its enemies. Hence seditious and treasonable matter ought to call down a penalty upon its authors and venders. Language that is grossly impious merits the restraint of a specific enactment. So that to provide a penalty for him who publishes libellous, seditious, or blasphemous matter, is no infringement upon å proper freedom of speech and of the press. No man is free or safe, where another may commit such wrongs with impunity.

The liberty in question is based upon that liberty of conscience and opinion which is the inalienable right of every one. There is a sanctuary where human laws are suspended. Sentiments and feelings come within the province of no legislation but the Supreme. He alone who made the soul, may prescribe authoritatively for its exercises, and to him alone is it responsible for them. Coercion, therefore, bodily pains and penalties, resorted to as a punishment for mere opinions, or in order to effect a change of opinions, transcend the province of man. It is trenching upon the prerogative of the Almighty. When the intent of the heart manifests itself in an overt act, an act which violates a principle of justice embodied in a law of the commonwealth, then, and then only, should the executive arm shew itself. A man may justly be made to labor under some disabilities on account of his opinions ; but his freedom to entertain the disabling opinion, is not thereby impaired. Even this negative kind of penalty, however, is allowable only where the higher class of rights and the more sacred privileges are endangered. An oath is justly withheld from the atheist, because if administered, it would be a mockery. But it is his own choice to disqualify himself for giving evidence in the usual form, before a court of justice. Yet, notwithstanding his scepticism, he is entitled as fully as any man to all civil privileges and immunities, which are

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