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Doctrines, or confession of faith, 459; forins of worship, 460, 461; church government, 462-185; history of Presbyterianism, 465-467; first churches established in America, and first presbytery formed in 1706.465; first synod held in 1717, 463; difficulties between the synod of Philadelphia and New York, 470, 471; state of the church during the Revolution, 475; literary institutions, education and marriages, 474, 475; first General Assembly in 1789, and great revival in the west, 476. 477; origin and cause of the division in the church, 478, 479; doings of the

convention in Philadelphia, held in 1837, 480; account of the division which took place in the Assembly in 1838, 481; statistics, education, publication and benevolent societies, 482--485.


Principles and government of the church, 485487; forms of public worship, 488; her Calvinistic doctrines, 489; genius and character of the church, 490; union of the New York and Philadelphia synods, and plan of union: also between the Presbyterians and Congregationalists, 491; the "plan of union," connected with other difficulties, occasioned a split in the Presbyterian church, 493; formation and success of the American Home Missionary society, 494, 495; acts and doings of the General Assembly in 1837 and 1838, 496; suit in court, its result and withdrawal, 496, 497; result of several suits

between parties in local and individual churches, 497;

benevolent institutions, education, and statistics, 498.

CUMBERLAND PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, Origin of the C. P. church, 499; great revival and opposition to the Cumberland presbytery, 501-502; the presbytery charged, tried, and a part silenced, 504; excision of the Cumberland presbytery, 505; formation of a new Cumberland presbytery. 506; constitution of the presbytery, 507; sketch of Finis Ewing, 507; great trials and opposition, 508; success and pulpit oratory, 509; first synod established, 510; confession of faith, 512; peculiarities, motto and difficulties, 513; general assembly formed in 1829, 514; literary institutions and periodicals, 515; statistics in 1834; introduction and spread of the gospel in Texas, 516; be evolent institutions, 517; ministerial education, 518; book agency, authors and localities, 519: statistics in 1847, and a recapitulatory sketch, 520.


Origin and localities of the Covenanters, 521; first missionaries and organization of the church in America, 522; union between the Seceders and Covenanters, and origin of the Associate Reformed Church, 522; fresh supply of missionaries from Scotland and Ireland, and reorganization of the church in this country, 522; adoption of the testimony and the nonslaveholding principle, 523; distinctive features of the church, 523, 524; objections to the constitution of the United States, 525; division of the church in 1833, 526; solemn league and covenant, 527-529.


Origin and early history, 531; test period, era of solemn league and covenant, and first settlements in America, 532; establishment of the church, union

between the Associate and Reformed churches, and rise of the Associate Reformed church, 533; reorganization of the Reformed Presbyterian church, doctrines and peculiar opinions, 534; psalmody, sacramenta! communion, civil government, and ordinance of public social covenantin 535, 536: calities, benevolent endowments and statistics, 537,



Religious faith of the Restorationists, 538; nature. design, and extent of Christ's kingdom, 539; proofs and arguments in support of their peculiar views, 540-544; criticisms on a few words and phrases. 515; objections answered, 546-548; history of Restorationism, 548; statistics, church government, peculiarities, and points of difference between Restorationism and Universalism, 549.


Corruptions and intoleration in Europe, induced many Germans and others to immigrate to America, 555; account of Alexander Mack and others, 551; origin of the German Seventh-Day Baptists, 552; great revivals of religion, and origin of the River Brethren, 553; statistics, faith, and practice, 553554; peculiar views, annual conferences and general character, 555, 556.


Sketch of Caspar Schwenkfeld, and three points on which he differed from Luther and others, 557; his followers, their flight to Denmark, Holland, and Schwenkfeld's character as a writer, persecution of Pennsylvania, 558; their first settlements, present localities and statistics, 559; their peculiar practice with regard to infants, 560.


Account of their origin and leading men, 560; first conference, formation of a discipline, and sketch of Win. Otterbein, 561; doctrines, government and conferences, 562; church officers and statistics, 563; appendix, containing a narrative of the life and times of William Otterbein and his coadjutors, 565, 566.

UNITED SOCIETY OF BELIEVERS. Historical sketch of their rise and progress, 567, 568; their localities and statistics in the east, 566; great revival in Kentucky, mission to the west, reception of their faith and testimony, and establishment of a society in Ohio, 563; their localities and statistics in the west, 570; their mode of worship and religious tenets, 571-574; faith and principles of the society at New Lebanon, 574; manner of receiving mem bers and manner of government, 575; order and arrangement of the society, 576-578.


Doctrines, 579; proofs of their peculiar views of Christ, and criticisms on Trinitarian views, 581; Uni

tarian views of the character and offices of Christ, 582; their views of the Holy Spirit, of depravity, of the new birth, of retribution, of the Bible, and of human reason, 583, 581; history, ancient and modern, 585; statistics. 587.


Name and history of their doctrine, 589-592; history and statistics, 592--595; desultory remarks on their views, and statements of several important doctrines, 597, 598.






No.Min No.Con No. Cop



either removed to the non-slaveholding This association of professing Chris States, or connected themselves with other tians consists (1844) of one hundred and societies. In the State of Vermont there six ministers, settled and itinerating; and are two small congregations, but none in of two hundred and ten organized congre- any of the other New England States. gations; and, as nearly as can be ascer. There are three ministers and a few vacant tained from the statistical tables of the congregations in Canada. different Presbyteries, which are, however,

The judicatories of this body now consomewhat defective, there are about 15,000 sist of a Synod and thirteen Presbyteries. communicants. Allowing four to each The following summary of the statistical communicant for children and other adhe- table will present some idea of the present rants, it will make about 75,000 persons condition of this society. The names of as connected with this society.

the Presbyteries generally indicate their The number of students in attendance locality. at the Theological Seminary during the last term, was twenty-nine; but as for

Presbyteries. several years there has been a gradual in- Cambridge, crease, their number may be estimated at

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, thirty for the ensuing term, -of which Starford, Upper Canada, number, one-fourth is usually added every Alleghany.


Pennsylvania, year to the list of ministers.

Chartiers, Pennsylvania,



Illinois, This society is found chiefly in the Mid- 1 Foreign Miss, Trinidad, W.1. dle and Western States. Prior to the Min, itinerating. year 1833, there was a Presbytery in the Southern States, called the Presbytery of the Carolinas, consisting of eight minis. * Those marked thus* are incomplete, there being ters, most of whom had large congrega- these the largest in the Presbytery: 15,000 is the

New York,
New York;



924 556 1165

521 2259

963* 2122* 1281

735+ 1519 738* 367 327*



14 16



no returns from several congregations, and some of tions. But in that year by an act of the estimated number of communicants. supreme judicatory of that body, all slave. Several Presbyteries, though marked as located in holders were excluded from the fellowship a particular state, include also the care of congregaof the church; since that time all those of Cambridge. New York, includes the congregations ministers and most of the people, have 1 in Vermont and Canada East.


The Synod, which is composed of all the ministers and one ruling elder from each congregation, meets annually on its own adjournment. Each Presbytery meets on its own adjournment, and as often as circumstances require.

The Theological Seminary is located at Cannonsburg, Pa. It has two proffessorships-one of didactic theology and Hebrew, at present filled by James Martin, D. D.; the other of church history, pastoral theology and biblical literature, at present filled by Thomas Beveridge, D. D. At this institution there is but one term each year, which continues from the first Monday of November until the last of March. The students are required to attend four terms to complete their course of study. The professors give lectures on their respective subjects. The text book which is used in didactic theology is "JoHANNIS MARKII CHRISTIANÆ THEOLOGIE MEDULLA."

The doctrine of the Confession of Faith concerning public, social, religious vowing or covenanting, as set forth in the xxii. chapter of the Confession of Faith, and as formerly practised by the churches of Great Britain and Ireland, and the Rcformed Church of Holland, is both held and practised by this church,—with this difference, that the civil part of the National Covenant of Scotland, and the Solemn League and Covenant of the kingdoms of Scotland, England, and Ireland, or any mingling of civil with religious affairs, have not been regarded by this church as belonging to the religious and ecclesiastical part of this duty.

This church, both in doctrine and practice, has always adhered to the use of a literal poetic version of the inspired Book of Psalms in the praises of God, as that only appointed of God, and consequently the only proper one.


As other bodies of professing Christians, both in Great Britain and this country, profess adherence to the standards and The Associate Presbyterian Church of doctrines of the Westminster Assembly, North America, is a branch of the Church the Associate Church also, from an early of Scotland; and holds the doctrines of period of her existence in this country, the Reformation as set forth in the stand- has published a "Declaration and Testiards of the Westminster Assembly. mony," more particularly setting forth, Hence the Westminster Confession of explaining, and defending some of the docFaith is her Confession of Faith; the trines of the Westminster standards, and Larger and Shorter Catechisms are her stating the prevailing errors against which authorized systems of catechetical instruc- this church considers herself called upon tion. The Form of Presbyterial Church to testify. To this Declaration and TestiGovernment, and the Directory for public mony she has prefixed a narrative, briefly worship and for family worship, are re-setting forth some of the leading facts in ceived and acknowledged as of obligatory her history, and the reasons of her mainauthority in this church. The xxiii. chap-taining a separate communion from other ter of the Confession of Faith, respecting existing denominations of the present day. the concern of the civil magistrate with These books, which constitute the publicly the church, is received with some explana- authorized subordinate standards, together tions, which are given in the Declaration with her Book of Discipline, set forth all and Testimony which this church has the distinctive principles and doctrines of adopted and published. These explana- this church. These books she calls her tions deny to the civil magistrate any au- subordinate standards, because held in thority in or control over the church, as subordination to the Bible, the supreme respects either doctrine or discipline, by standard of the church of Christ. virtue of his office. The church is regarded as a free and independent society, to be governed and regulated according to the rules laid down in the Word of God, and responsible for the faithful discharge of her duty to Christ her only king and head.

The following formula of questions, proposed to private members on their admission to fellowship in the church, will give a brief but pretty distinct view of the principles and religious practices of this church:

1. Do you believe the Scriptures of the

Old and New Testament to be the Word least a part of it, as follows—"Considerof God, and the only rule of faith and ing that patronage and presentation of practice?

kirks is an evil and bondage, under which 2. Do you prosess your adherence to the Lord's people and the ministers of this the Westminster Confession of Faith, land have long groaned; and that it hath Larger and Shorter Catechisms, Form of no warrant in God's word, but is founded Presbyterial Church Government, and Di. only on the common law, and is a custom rectory for the worship of God, as these popish, and brought into the kirk in time are received and witnessed for by us, in of ignorance and superstition ; and that our Declaration and Testimony, for the the same is contrary to the Second book doctrine and order of the church of of Discipline, in which, upon solid and Christ!

good ground, it is reckoned among the 3. Do you profess your resolution abuses that are desired to be reformed, through grace to continue in the faith, ac- and (contrary] unto several acts of Genecording to the profession you now make ral Assemblies; and that it is prejudicial of it, and to be subject to the order and to the liberty of the people and planting

discipline of the house of God; to be dili- of kirks, and unto the free calling and | gent in your attendance on public ordi- entry of ministers unto their charge : and

nances, teaching and sealing, according to the said estates being willing and desirous your profession, on secret prayer, on to promote and advance the reformation family worship, as you may have opportu- foresaid, that everything in the house of nity, (to be used if the applicant be a head God may be ordered according to his word of a family,) in keeping up family worship and commandment, do therefore, from a daily, morning and evening, and to per- sense of the former obligations, and upon form all other duties incumbent on you, the former grounds and reasons, discharge according to this profession, in whatever forever hereafter, all patronages and prestation you may occupy in life ; and that sentations of kirks, whether belonging to you will make conscience of promoting the king or any laic patron, presbyteries, the knowledge of Christ, and his truths, or others within this kingdom, as being as by other means, so more especially by unlawful and unwarrantable by God's a holy and spiritual conversation, consist- word, and contrary to the doctrine and ent with your profession ?

liberties of this Kirk; and do therefore rescind, make void, and annul all gifts and

rights granted thereanent, and all former HISTORY.

acts made in Parliament, or in any infeThe Associate Presbyterian Church in rior judicatory, in favor of any patron or North America, is a branch of the Church patrons whatsoever, so far as the same of Scotland. The brief space to which doth or may relate unto the presentation this sketch is necessarily limited, forbids of kirks;" making it a penal offence, un. us to refer particularly to that eventful pe- der any pretext, to give or receive such riod in the history of the Church of Scot- presentation. And Presbyteries were proland, that intervenes between the years hibited from admitting to trials for ordina1638 and 1688. Yet the causes which tion any candidate upon any such presentaultimately led to the Secession of 1733, tion. may be distinctly found in the history of It may here he remarked, that this act that period. During that reforming period, was in full accordance with the doctrine the church complained of the law of pa. of the Church of Scotland, from her first tronage as an evil, and had obtained va organization under the doctrines and prinrious acts against it, particularly an Act ciples of the Reformation from Popery. of Parliament passed at Edinburgh, March In the first Book of Discipline, drawn up 9th, 1649, Charles I. and II. Parl. 2 Sess. by John Knox, we find the following rule: Act 39, the patronage of kirks was abol. "No minister should be intruded on any ished. That act had such an immediate particular kirk, without their consent.' connection with the origin of the Asso. The same principle is asserted in the Seciate Church, that we may transcribe at cond Book of Discipline, adopted in 1578, and in force until 1640. This principle | ing the long received principles of the is also repeatedly recognised in the Direcchurch. tory of the Westminster divines.

In October following, Mr. Ebenezer The above act of Parliament continued Erskine, minister at Stirling, in a sermon in force in the Church of Scotland until preached at the opening of the Synod of the year 1712, or the 11th of Queen Anne, Perth and Stirling, condemned with freewhen the doctrine of patronage was again dom and plainness of speech some of the revived by Act of Parliament, in the prevailiny sins of that time, and particuChurch of Scotland, to the great grief of larly the act of the Assembly of May preat least most good men in her. Many of ceding, “ Anent the settlement of vacant these not only opposed the reviving of churches, d-c.,” referring to the Kinross patronage to the last, in the General As. and other cases, sembly, but entered their solemn protest The Synod took offence at the freedom against it in the Assembly. The exercise with which Mr. Erskine attacked the act of the right of patronage, at this time re- and decisions of the Assembly, and imstored to the patrons, was for some time mediately took measures to censure him used with mildness, and the wishes of the for the sentiments uttered in the sermon. congregations were generally consulted by This was the beginning of a series of the patrons. But men greedy of power proceedings which led to the secession and gain, were not long restrained by and organization of the Associate Pres. principles of moderation.* Cases soon bytery of Scotland, which event took place arose, where the patrons altogether disre- on the 17th of November, 1733. garded the wishes of the people; and The reader will at once see the connex. church courts were soon found corrupt ion between the secession and the proceedenough to sustain them in it.

ings of the church on the subject of patA flagrant case of this kind occurred in ronage. The seceding brethren who the parish of Kinross, in the bounds of formed the Associate Presbytery mainthe Presbytery of Dunfermline. Sir John tained, that in condemning patronage and Bruce the patron, gave the presentation to the decisions of the judicatories sanction. a Mr. Robert Stark, a very unpopular ing the settlement of ministers in congrenominee, to whose ministry, the body of gations against the consent of the people, the people could not be induced to submit. they were only acting in conformity with This case, according to a late historian, the acknowledged principles of the church. was one of the most scandalous intrusions They accordingly bore a very decided that ever was made in a Christian con- testimony against patronage. In a similar gregation. The Presbytery positively manner the Associate Presbytery of Pennresused to take any steps towards Mr. sylvania expressed their sentiments on this Stark's ordination. The Synod of Fife, subject. to which the Presbytery of Dunfermline

The revival of patronage was one of belonged, with the aid of the Assembly, the evils which resulted to the church resolved, however, to settle him at all haz- from merging the Parliament of Scotland ards. This case came before the General into that of England, in 1707. Assembly in May, 1732, and it, together “ The members of the British Parlia. with similar cases, which were now be ment, being generally of the communion coming more frequent, led to the adoption of the Episcopal church of England, and of an act at that meeting of the Assembly, one class of them dignitaries in it, was not anent planting vacant churches,” in to be expected they would act the part of which the doctrine of patronage was re- friends to the Presbyterian interest

. Accognised, and such settlements as that of cordingly, in the year 1711, [1712, ?) Kinross were approved.

when a party who entertained a deadly This act gave great offence to many hatred against the English dissenters, and godly people, and was regarded as violat. against the Church of Scotland, prevailed,

the Parliament grievously injured both, and * Struther's History of Scotland, vol. i. p. 599. took from the people belonging to the latFrazer's Life of Ralph Erskine, p. 190. ter, the liberty of choosing their own pas

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