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cony of each community. Moneys were 1 is administered, and the missionary con. taken up, under the special superintendo cern in general managed, by another de. ence of the elders, and of the comınittee partment of the Board of Elders of the above mentioned, and invested ; the pro- Unity, called the Missionary Department. ceeds went to defray the disbursements of A third department of this board is termed that particular community ; the under the Department of Education. This has standing was, that, if the avails were such charge, not only of the subject of the eduas to leave any thing to be disposed of cation of children throughout the society after defraying their own expenses, such generally, but, in a special manner, of surplus was to go to aid other communities, those who are educated at the public exwhose means might not be so ample, or to pense. assist the general concerns. Thus, in

of the communities of the Uni. most communities of the United Brethren, ted Brethren in Germany, England, and certain trades or manufactures are carried America, boarding schools for the educaon for their benefit, as such. By these tion of young persons of both sexes are means, together with the voluntary annual established, in which not only their youth, subscriptions of the members towards the but a great number of others, are inmaintainance of the ministers, and the structed in useful sciences and polite acsupport of the church and schools, the quirements. For many years these schools necessary funds are raised for defraying have sustained, and still maintain, a con. the charges on the particular communities, siderable reputation both in Europe and and for certain proportionate contributions, America. At Niesky, in Upper Lusatia, which each is expected to furnish to that the Unity maintains a higher classical infund of the Unity, which is established for stitution, where those receive a preparathe support of the superannuated ministers tory education, who intend to embrace the and other officers, and their widows, as liberal professions, or to be prepared for well as the education of their children. the ministry. The latter complete their The funds required in each community, studies in a college situated at Gnadenfeld, for the purposes of police and conveniences, in Silesia, which serves the purposes of a are raised by regular taxes on the house- university. Similar institutions, upon a holders, assessed by the committee before smaller scale, are established at Fulnec mentioned. The rest of the assets on for the English, and at Nazareth for the hand, at the death of Count Zinzendorf, American portion of the Unity. These was put under the control of a special are, properly speaking, theological semiboard of elders of the Unity, and the pro- naries only. Young men, desirous of deceeds applied to discharge the debt before voting themselves to the medical or other mentioned. The disbursements required learned professions, resort, of course, to by the missions among the heathen are the public universities of their respective supplied by voluntary contributions. The countries. In the three departments of greater part of the annual amount at the the Board of Elders of the Unity, before present time is furnished by persons not alluded to, taken collectively, the direcconnected with the society. Some few of tion of the whole Unity is concentrated. the West India missions are in part sup. This board, however, is responsible to the ported by the industry of the missionaries, synods of the society, which meet at stated and those in Labrador by a commercial times, generally at intervals of from seven establishment trading thither under the to twelve years, and from whom all its guidance of a society established at Lon authority emanates. They are composed don. In the United States, there is a so- of bishops and certain other general offi. ciety for propagating the gospel among cers of the society, such as the members the heathen, incorporated by several states, of the Board of Elders of the Unity for and consisting of members of the United the time being, and of the representatives Brethren's Church. This society has re- chosen by each individual community. At cently acquired large sunds, by the bequest these meetings, a revision of all the con. of one of its members. All these re- cerns of the society and its parts takes sources flow into the common fund, which place, and such alterations are adopted as circumstances seem to require. They are community. Particular daily opportuniterminated by the appointment of a new ties of edification are there afforded them; Board of Elders of the Unity.

and such a house is the place of resort, The following is a sketch of the mode where the young men and boys of the of life of the United Brethren where they families spend their leisure time, it being form separate communities, which, how. a general rule, that every member of the ever, is not always the case ; for, in many society shall devote himself to some use. instances, societies belonging to the Unity ful occupation. A similar house, under are situated in larger and smaller cities the guidance of a female superintendent, and towns, intermingled with the rest of and under similar regulations, is called the inhabitants, in which cases their pecu. the Single Sister's House, and is the comliar regulations are, of course, out of the mon dwelling-place of all unmarried question. In their separate communities, females, not members of any family, or they do not allow the permanent residence not employed as servants in the families of any persons as householders who are of the community. Even these regard not members in full communion, and who the Sister's House as their principal place have not signed the written instrument of of association at leisure hours. Indus. the brotherly agreement, upon which their trious habits are here inculcated in the constitution and discipline rest; but they same way. freely admit of the temporary residence In the communities of the United Breth. among them of such persons as are will. ren in America, the facilities of supporting ing to conform to their external regula: families, and the consequent early martions. According to these, all kinds of riages, have superseded the necessity of amusements, considered dangerous to strict Single Brethren's Houses; but they all morality, are forbidden, as balls, dancing, have Sisters' Houses of the above descrip. plays, gambling of any kind, and all pro tion, which afford a comfortable asylum miscuous assemblies of the youth of both to aged unmarried females, while they sexes. These, however, are not debarred furnish an apportunity of attending to the from forming, under proper advice and further education and improvement of the parental superintendence, that acquaint- female youth after they have left school. ance which their future matrimonial con. In the larger communities, similar houses nexions may require.

afford the same advantages to such widows In the communities on the European as desire to live retired, and are called continent, whither, to this day, numbers Widows' Houses. The individuals resid. of young persons of both sexes resort, in ing in these establishments pay a small order to become members of the society, rent, by which, and by the sums paid for from motives of piety and a desire to pre. their board, the expenses of these houses pare themselves to become missionaries are defrayed, assisted occasionally by the among the heathen, and where, moreover, profits on the sale of ornamental needlethe difficulties of supporting a family work, &c., on which some of the inmates greatly limit the number of marriages, a subsist. The aged and needy are supstricter attention to this point becomes ne ported by the same means. Each divi. cessary. On this account, the unmarried sion of sex and station, just alluded to, men and boys, not belonging to the fami. viz. : widows, single men and youths, lies of the community, reside together, single women and girls, past the age of under the care of an elder of their own childhood, is placed under the special class, in a building called the Single guidance of elders of their own descripBrethren's House, where, usually, divers tion, whose province it is to assist them trades and manufacturers are carried on, in good advice and admonition, and to for the benefit of the house or of the com- attend, as much as may be, to the spiri. munity, and which, at the same time, fur. tual and temporal welfare of each indivi. nishes a cheap and convenient place for dual. The children of each sex are under the board and lodging of those who are the immediate care of the superintendent employed as journeymen, apprentices, or of the single choirs, as these divisions are otherwise, in the families constituting the termed. Their instruction in religion,



and in all the necessary branches of hu- hymns, in which the whole congregation man knowledge, in good schools, carried joins, while they partake together of a on separately for each sex, is under the cup of coffee, tea, or chocolate, and light special superintendence of the stated mi. cakes, in token of fellowship and brotherly nister of each community, and of the Board union. This solemnity is called a Love of Elders, Similar special elders are Feast, and is in imitation of the custom charged to attend to the spiritual welfare of the Agape in the primitive Christian of the married people. All these elders, churches. The Lord's Supper is celeof both sexes, together with the stated brated at intervals, generally by all comminister, to whom the preaching of the municant members together, under very gospel is chiefly committed, (although all solemn and but simple rites. Easter other elders who may be qualified parti. morning is devoted to a solemnity of a cipate therein,) and with the persons to peculiar kind. At sunrise, the congregawhom the economical concerns of the tion assembles in the grave-yard ; a sercommunity are entrusted, form together vice, accompanied by music, is celebrated, the Board of Elders, in which rests the expressive of the joyful hopes of immor. government of the community, with the tality and resurrection, and a solemn comconcurrence of the committee elected by memoration is made of all who have, in the inhabitants for all temporal concerns. the course of the last year, departed this This committee superintends the observ- life from among them, and “ gone home ance of all regulations, has charge of the to the Lord”-an expression they often police, and decides differences between use to designate death. Considering the individuals. Matters of a general nature termination of the present life no evil

, but are submitted to a meeting of the whole the entrance upon an eternal state of bliss community, consisting either of all male to the sincere disciples of Christ, they demembers of age, or of an intermediate sire to divest this event of all its terrors. body elected by them.

The decease of every individual is an. Public meetings are held every evening nounced to the community by solemn in the week. Some of these are devoted music from a band of instruments. Out. to the reading of portions of scripture, ward appearances of mourning are disothers to the communications of accounts countenanced. The whole congregation from the missionary stations, and others follows the bier to the grave-yard (which to the singing of hymns or selected verses. is commonly laid out as a garden,) acOn Sunday morninys, the church litany companied by a band, playing the tunes is publicly read, and sermons are delivered of well-known verses, which express the to the congregation, which, in many hopes of eternal life and resurrection, and places, is the case likewise in the after the corpse is deposited in the simple grave

In the evening, discourses are de- during the funeral service. The preserlivered, in which the texts for that day vation of the purity of the community is are explained and brought home to the entrusted to the Board of Elders and its particular circumstances of the commu• different members, who are to give instrucnity. Besides these regular means of edi- tion and admonition to those under their fication, the festival days of the Christian care, and make a discreet use of the es. church, such as Easter, Pentecost, Christ- tablished church discipline. In cases of mas, &c., are commemorated in a special immoral conduct, or flagrant disregard manner, as well as some days of peculiar of the regulations of the society, the folinterest in the history of the society. A lowing discipline is resorted to. If expossolemn church music constitutes a promi. tulations are not successful, offenders are nen feature of their means of edification, for a time restrained from participating in music in general being a favorite employ the holy communion, or called before the ment of the leisure of many. On particu- committee. For pertinacious bad conduct, lar occasions, and before the congregation or Nagrant excesses, the culpable indi. meets to partake of the Lord's Supper, vidual is dismissed from the society. they assemble expressly to listen to instru- The ecclesiastical church officers, genmental and vocal music interspersed with erally speaking, are the bishops, through




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whom the regular succession of ordina- , to their own, as far as circumstances per-
tion, transmitted to the United Brethren mit. It would be preposterous to conceive
through the ancient Church of the Bohe. that the peculiar views, and the regula-
mian and Moravian Brethren, is preserved, tions of a society such as that of the Uni-
and who alone are authorized to ordainted Brethren, could ever be adopted by
ministers, but possess no authority in the any large body of men. They are exclu-
government of the church, except such sively calculated for small communities.
as they derive from some other office, Any one desirous of separating from the
being most frequently the presidents of society meets with no hinderance.
some board of elders; the presbyters, or The following is a succinct view of the
ordained stated ministers of the commu- principal establishments of the society. In
nities, and the deacons. The degree of the United States, they have separate com-
deacon is the first bestowed upon young munities, at Bethelem, Nazareth, and Litiz,
ministers and missionaries, by which they in Pennsylvania, and at Salem, in North
are authorized to administer the sacra. Carolina. Bethelem is, next to the mother

community at Herrnhut, in Germany, their Females, although elders among their largest establishment. Besides these, there own sex, are never ordained ; nor have are congregations at Newport, in Rhode they a vote in the deliberations of the Island, at New York, at Philadelphia, LanBoard of Elders, which they attend for caster and York; at Graceham in Marythe sake of information only.

land; and several country congregations It now remains to give some account scattered through Pennsylvania, the memof the number and extension of this so- bers of which chiefly dwell on their planciety, which are often strangely exaggera- tations, but have a common place of wor. ted. On the continent of Europe, together ship. There are four of this description with Great Britain, the number of persons in North Carolina, in the vicinity of Salem. living in their different communities, or The whole number of congregations is formed into societies closely connected twenty-two; of these there are ten village with the Unily, does not exceed thirteen congregations, four city, and eight country or fourteen thousand, including children. congregations. The number of pastors Their number in the United States falls and assistant pastors is twenty-four; two somewhat short of six thousand souls. bishops, two administrators, four wardens, Besides these there are about three times and four principals of schools. The total this number of persons dispersed through number of members, at present, in the Germany, Livonia, &c., who are occa- United States, is about six thousand. sionally visited by brethren, and strength- In England, their chief settlements are ened in their religious convictions, while Fulnec in Yorkshire, Fairfield in Lancathey have no external connexion with the shire, Ockbrook in Derbyshire. CongreUnity. These cannot be considered mem- gations exist likewise in London, Bedford, bers of the society, though they may Bristol, Bath, Plymouth, Haverfordwest, maintain a spiritual connexion with it. together with a number of country congreThe numbers of converts from heathen gations in divers villages. In Ireland, they nations, are regularly reported, and do not have a considerable congregation at Grace. now exceed 40,000 souls, comprehending hill, in the county of Antrim, and small all those who are in any way under the congregations at Dublin, Gracefield, and care of the missionaries. Indeed it never Ballinderry. On the continent of Europe, was the object of the society to attempt Herrnhut, Niesky, and Kleinwelke, in the Christianization of whole nations or Upper Lusatia ; Gnadenfrey, Gnaden. tribes, as such must be a mere nominal berg, Gnadenfeld and Neusalız, in Silesia; conversion. They profess to admit those Ebensdorf, near Lobenstein; Neudicten. only to the rite of baptism who give evi- dorf, in the duchy of Gosna, Konigsfeld, dence of their faith by the change wrought in that of Baden ; Neuwied on the Rhine; in their life and conduct. On this account, Christianfeld, in Holstein ; Zeyst, near they have every where introduced among Utrecht, in Holland; and Sarepta, on the their heathen converts a discipline similar confines of Asiatic Russia, are the names

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of their separate communities ; besides Hope, among the Hottentots and Caffres ; which are organized societies at Berlin, and in North America, among the DelaRixdorf, Potsdam, Konigsberg, Norden in ware Indians in Upper Canada and in the Friesland, Copenhagen, Altona, Stock. Indian Territory, and among the Cheroholm, Gottenburg, St. Petersburg, and kees in Arkansas. It is a general princi. Moscow.

ple of the society, that their social organiTheir principal missions among the zation is in no case to interfere with their heathens at this time are the following: duties as citizens or subjects of govern. among

the negro slaves in the three Danishments under which they live, and wherWest India islands ; in Jamaica, St. Kitts, ever they are settled. They have always Antigua, Barbadoes, Tobago, and in Suri- supported a good reputation, and been nam, among the same description of per- generally considered valuable members of sons ; in Greenland, among the natives of the community, on account of the moral that desolate region ; in Labrador, among and industrious habits successfully incul. the Esquimaux; at the Cape of Good cated by their system.





The society was first composed of a spline, from the bishop, downwards, are to number of members seceding from the take charge of the temporal and spiritual Methodist Episcopal Church in the city business of the church. A church was of New York, in the year 1820, together erected, and about 300 members organized, with several of the trustees. It had its | under one preacher, the Rev. William M. origin from the circumstance of the ruling Stilwell, who withdrew from the travelling preacher, so called, insisting on receiving connexion, and assumed the pastoral charge the money collected in the different of them, which he retains until this prechurches under his charge, through stew. sent year, (1843.) In the course of the ards of his own appointment, instead of three years following, they had erected by the trustees appointed according to two other places of Worship, and forined law, and in accordance with the practice a discipline, in which the general principles, of the church in all time previous, together as taught by the Methodists, were recog. with certain resolutions passed by the New nised; but in the government of the church York Annual Conference of Ministers, to there was a difference: 1. No bishop was petition the legislature for a law recogni- allowed, but a president of each annual sing the peculiarities of the church disci. conference was chosen yearly, by ballot pline, by which the whole properties of of the members thereof. 2. All ordained the church would have been placed under ministers, whether travelling or not, were the supervision and control of the body of allowed a seat in the annual conferences. ministers, who according to their disci. 3. Two lay delegates from each quarterly

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