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Congregationalists. They adjudged that bers, who present their commissions for the four synods of Genessee, Geneva, that purpose, anterior to the commenceUtica, and the Western Reserve were ment of the sessions. These officers not "constituent parts” of the Presbyte. omitted all reference to the delegates rian Church. The operations of the from the presbyteries comprised in the American Home Missionary, and of the four synods which had been expunged American Education Societies were ex- from the ecclesiastical statistics by the cluded from their churches, and the previous Assembly. When the motion Third Presbytery of Philadelphia was was made that the commissions from dissolved.

these presbyteries should be received, the The succeeding twelve months were moderator refused to recognize the modevoted by both parties to preparation for tion, or the parties on whose behalf it was the Assembly of 1838. By custom it made. After a short interval of disorder, devolves upon the permanent and stated the minority, including both the advoclerks to make up the list of the mem- cates of the synods who were excluded

by the Assembly of 1837, and the comword of God, and not a grace of the Holy missioners from those synods,) united in Spirit.

XII. Regeneration is the act of the sinner disclaiming the authority of the modera. himself, and it consists in a change of his tor, and proceeded to organize by them. governing purpose, which he himself must selves; and having elected another modproduce, and which is the result, not of any erator and clerks, the whole of the dis. direct influence of the Holy Spirit on the heart, sentients from the acts of the Assembly, but chiefly of a persuasive exhibition of the in 1837, immediately withdrew, in a body, truth, analagous to the influence which one man exerts over the mind of another; or re- to the edifice occupied by the First Pres. generation is not an instantaneous act, but a byterian Church of Philadelphia. progressive work.

The majority retained their seats until XIII. God has done all that he can do for the the temporary confusion ceased, when they salvation of all men, and man himself must do the rest.

proceeded to their ecclesiastical business XIV. God cannot exert such influence on according to the prescribed ordinary forms. the minds of men, as shall make it certain The trustees and other corporate bodies that they will choose and act in a particular among the Presbyterians possess much manner, without impairing their moral agency: valuable property, for their seminaries

XV. The righteousness of Christ is not the and missionary institutions. Some time sole ground of the sinner's acceptance with God; and in no sense does the righteousness after the separation in 1638 had been con. of Christ become ours.

summated, the question, in whom that XVI. The reason why some differ from property was legally vested, was carried others in regard to their reception of the gos- into the civil courts of Pennsylvania, in pel is, that they make themselves to differ. The Convention pronounced these “errors

which state the trustees were incorporated. unscriptural, radical, and highly dangerous," The Trustees of the General Assembly which in their ultimate tendency, subvert are elected by the General Assembly, who the foundation of Christian hope, and destroy may change one-third of the number every the souls of men."

year. The seceding Assembly elected The Convention, on church order and discipline, particularly specified as practices of one-third of the board as new members. which they complained: The formation of When they claimed their seats at the presbyteries founded on doctrinal repulsions board they were refused admission. A as affinities. The refusal of presbyteries to suit, therefore, was commenced, to obtain ordination of men unfit for want of qualifica- possession of the offices from which, as tion, and who deny fundamental principles of they contended, they were illegally ex. truth. The needless ordination of evangelists cluded. The cause excited intense inter. without any pastoral relation. The want of est, and was primarily decided in favor of discipline respecting gross acknowledged er- the claimants ; for the true question litirors. The number of ministers abandoning gated was this: Was the body who refused their duties for secular employments, in violation of their vows. The disorderly meet

to acknowledge the four several synods ings of members and others, thereby exciting the true Assembly of the Presbyterian discord and contention among the churches. Church? An appeal to the Supreme Court was entered from the adjudication ( tion which they have since put to the of the inferior tribunal. The superior powers of the General Assembly, and of court reversed the sentence of the lower the substitution of triennial for annual court; and granted a new trial, with a General Assemblies. construction of the law which in effect And all these distinct denominations, inprecluded the plaintiffs from obtaining their cluding the Cumberland Presbyterians, object, and the suit was withdrawn. Thus, and some smaller denominations, although so far as the legal decision in Pennsylva. for various causes they are arranged in nia operates, the General Assembly of the separate bodies, compose a great PresbyPresbyterian Church in the United States terian family in the United States, which are recognised as that body, represented comprises upwards of four thousand minby their trustees who, in law, still hold | isters and nearly six thousand churches, that title, with its common property. and comprehends a population of three or

The effervescence of the strife now has four millions who, either as communicants I, almost disappeared; and the two bodies or worshippers, are associated with them. of American Presbyterians are actively pursuing their own course. According to

III.-STATISTICAL. their statistical returns, they have increased According to the statistical tables, ap. during the six years from their separation, pended to the minutes of the General Asnearly one-third in actual numbers. More- sembly, for 1843, the Presbyterian Church over, when we contrast the diversified ads in the United States, comprises 19 synods, ditional instrumentalities to promote the or 105 presbyteries, 1434 ministers, 183 Redeemer's kingdom, which have been licentiates, 314 candidates for the minis. put in operation by them, since their di.

try, 2092 churches, and 159,137 memvision in 1838; it is manisest, that, in bers in communion. capacity for the Lord's work, they have The existing institutions of the Presbydoubled their usefulness and enterprise. terian Church must be concisely described.

Thus, from the smallest beginnings, They may generally be divided into those when the little companies of the “ Pres. connected with education, or literature, or byterian Pilgrims" 'who first came to missions. America, as it were, but with a “staff," Education. — This department comhere laid the foundations of this church, prises colleges, theological seminaries, and and reared it under manifold difficulties the “ Board of Education." and annoyances, encountering obloquy and Colleges. The establishments of learn. even persecutions: it has grown under the ing at the following places, although not protection and favor of Providence, oft absolutely connected with, or directly consharing the dews of the Holy Spirit, en- trolled by Presbyterians exclusively, are larging its borders in this genial land, and generally considered as under their superexerting a happy influence on the world, vision, or are chiefly sustained by them. until now it has “ become two bands." New York.-Hamilton College ; Union

Although not of this distinct denomina- College, at Schenectady; New York Uni. tion, the Reformed Dutch and German versity. Reformed Churches in the United States, New Jersey.-Nassau Hall, at Princeare Presbyterian and Calvinistic.

Their ton. standards of doctrine are the Articles of Pennsylvania.-- Jefferson, at Cannons. the Synod of Dort and the Heidelberg burg; Washington College ; La Fayette, Catechism. The Reformed Presbyterian at Easton. Church, or Covenanters, the Associate Virginia.-Hampden Sidney, in Prince Church, and the Associate Reformed Edward county; Washington, at Lexing. Church, and the body which separated ton. from us in 1838, adopt the Westminster North Carolina.-University of North Standards as the symbols of their faith Carolina, at Chapel Hill; Davidson, at and order ;-the last specified body having Mecklenburg. the same constitution as the Presbyterian South Carolina.--South Carolina, at Church, with the exceptions of the restric. Columbia.

Tennessee.-University of Nashville, Herald, at Frankfort, Kentucky; the Kentucky.-Centre, at Danville. Watchman of the South, at Richmond, Ohio.- Miami University, at Oxford. Virginia ; and the Observer, at Charleston, Indiana.--South Hanover College. South Carolina.

Theological Seminaries.-At Prince- Board of Publication.-In addition to lon, New Jersey; Western, at Allegheny, these miscellanies, the Presbyterians have Pennsylvania ; Union, in Prince Edward organized a most important and efficient county, Virginia; Southern, at Columbia, society, denominated the Presbyterian South Carolina ; Indiana, at New Albany, Board of Publication, which was instituted Indiana,

for the purpose of disseminating standard Board of Education. — The formal volumes of theology and ecclesiastical hiscommencement of the work of education tory, and also tracts that elucidate and defor the ministry, was the result of the pro- fend Presbyterianism. This board, which ceedings of the General Assembly in 1806, is elected by the General Assembly, has when that duty was assigned to each pres- printed nearly fifty tracts, doctrinal, ritual, bytery. The inefficiency of the system on Popery, historical, and for youth. induced the General Assembly, in 1819, Nearly one hundred and thirty works to form the “Board of Education ;” but have already been issued by the Presbyduring the interval until 1829, there was terian Board of Publication, which may not the adequate result which was neces- thus be classified: Biographical, nineteen ; sary to supply the demands for ministers. devotional, eight; doctrinal, twenty; ex. A new organization was then made ; and perimental, seventeen; historical, seventhe consequence has been manifested in a teen; polemical, sixteen ; practical, five; large augmentation of the funds, and a prophetic, five; and works adapted for proportionate increase in the number of youth, eighteen. The benign fruits, which theological students maintained during this powerful typographical machinery is their preparatory course.

producing, can be estimated only by reThirteen hundred and fifty young men membering the moderate price at which have been assisted in their studies for the the works are sold, and the high character gospel ministry. Two-thirds of the for- of the volumes themselves, a few of which eign missionaries, and nearly one-half of are enumerated in the order in which they the domestic missionaries, with a large originally were published. proportion of the pastors of the Presby. Brooks's Mute Christian ; Halyburton's terian churches at this time, have been in Great Concern ; Life of John Knox; Char. troduced to the ministry through the aid nock's Discourses on Regeneration ; Guthof the “ Board of Education."

rie's Christian's Great Interests ; Lime Literature. — This department com- Street Lectures ; Bradbury's Myste prises the miscellaneous publications, which Godliness; Flavel's Divine Conduct ; are expressly devoted to promulge the Charnock's Discourses on the Attributes doctrinal principles, and to defend the of God; Owen on the Holy Spirit ; Chargovernment and discipline of the Presby- nock on Christ Crucified; Owen on Justi. terian churches,

fication ; Calvin's Institutes, translated by There is a quarterly periodical, by John Allen; Owen on Indwelling Sin; Presbyterian writers, entitled the Biblical Sibbs's Souls' Conflict; Lorimer's History Repertory and Theological Review, which of the French Protestants; McCrie's His. is devoted almost exclusively to disquisi. tory of the Reformation in Italy and Spain; tions strictly religious, or to those which the British Reformers, with their Lives, have a close affinity with them, either on twelve volumes ; Daillie's Use of the Fa. Christian ethics or ecclesiastical history. thers; Mead's Almost Christian ; Char. Several weekly newspapers are issued by lotte Elizabeth's English Martyrology, them, and very extensively dispersed. and the Lives of the British Reformers, The Presbyterian, at Philadelphia ; the separate from their writings. Presbyterian Advocate, at Pittsburg, Penn- The beneficial influence, under the disylvania ; the Presbyterian of the West, vine auspices, which must result from the at Springfield, Ohio ; the Protestant and unrestricted dissemination of these and similar invaluable Christian productions, | ary work. In consequence of which, throughout the Republic, and especially “ In the year 1831, a determined and acamong the Household of Faith, far tran- tive effort was made by the Synod of scends our utmost imagination; and the ex. Pittsburg, to awaken the church to a sense hilarating anticipation cannot be otherwise of her duty in this respect, by the organiexpressed, than in the Psalmist's urgent zation of the Western Foreign Missionary petition, “O Lord, we beseech thee, send Society.' This society met with so much now prosperity !" Amen.

favor, that the General Assembly in 1835 Missions. This portion of the philan. resolved to engage the whole church in an thropic labors of the Presbyterian churches enterprise worthy of her character and is conducted by two distinct agencies and resources. The · Presbyterian Board of boards of managers.

Foreign Missions,' was organized in the Domestic.—The primary arrangements year 1837, under favorable auspices, and for Home Missions, under the committee to it was made an entire transfer of all appointed by the General Assembly, were that pertained to the Western Foreign comparatively restricted in extent and lan- Missionary Society.” guid in their operations ; until in 1828, “ The experiment has succeeded, and the present efficient system was adopted, the smiles of God have rested on that in. through which there has been a gradual stitution. Flourishing missions have been but constant increase in the number of established among various tribes of Amer. missionaries, the amount of funds col- ican Indians, in Western Africa, Northern lected, the interest excited, and the good India, and China, and all the operations accomplished.” Three hundred missiona. are carried on with great ability.” ries are now employed, while the prospect In Northern India, there is a synod of of usefulness in spreading the gospel never American missionaries in connexion with was more promising than at the present the General Assembly; comprising the period. Signal success already has at- Presbytery of Allahabad, of six ministers tended the work under the divine blessing; -the Presbytery of Furrukabad, of four and every heart must exult in the glorious ministers—and the Presbytery of Lodiana, prospect, that “the righteousness” of of five ministers. The Board of Missions Zion “shall go forth as brightness,” and issues two monthly periodicals, the “ Mis“the salvation" of Jerusalem “as the sionary Chronicle," and the “ Foreign lamp that burneth."

Missionary ;" which are extensively disForeign.—“The first mission to the persed, and effectually sustain the soliciheathen, established by the Presbyterian tude that is experienced to “send out the Church, was among the Indians on Long light and the truth.” Island, in the year 1741. David Brainard was the second missionary. His ordina. The foregoing article claims to be but tion took place in the year 1744, and the little more than an authentic compilation. fields of his remarkable labors were at The writer has freely copied and incorpothe forks of the Delaware, on the borders rated with his own language, the language of the Susquehanna, and at Crossweeks of such of his authorities as suited his in New Jersey. From that period, in- purpose, without specific notice. He creasing attention was given to this great takes this place to acknowledge his obli. subject, and various missionary societies gations of this sort to the authorities on were formed in which Presbyterians which he has thus drawn, viz.: The Conlargely participated. This was particu- fession of Faith ; Edinburgh Encyclopalarly the case in the United Foreign Mis. dia ; Miller's Christian Ministry, and sionary Society, which after a brief career Presbyterianism ; Histories of the West. was eventually merged in the American minster Assembly, by Hetherington, and Board of Commissioners for Foreign Mis- by the Presbyterian Board of Publication;

and Hodge's Constitutional History of the Notwithstanding, many Presbyterians Presbyterian Church. He has also rewere solicitous that their own churches ceived very essential aid from the Rev. should separately engage in the mission George Bourne, in the sedulous explora.


tions of the official documents and records part of the historical sketch which comof the Presbyterian Church, and other mences with the formation of the Presbyreliable authorities, and in the arrange tery of Philadelphia, and in the preparament and principal composition of thattion of the statistical department.

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The character and peculiarities of the that the rights of private judgment in all Presbyterian Church may be learned from matters, that respect religion, are univerthe Constitution of the Presbyterian Church sal and inalienable, and that no religious in the United States of America: con constitution ought to be aided by the civil taining the Confession of Faith, the Cate powers farther than may be necessary for chisms, and the Directory for the worship protection and security, and at the same of God; together with the Plan of Govern time be equal and common to all others. ment and Discipline as amended and rati. That in perfect consistency with the fied by the General Assembly at their above principle of common right, every session in the first Presbyterian Church, Christian church, or union, or association Philadelphia, in May, 1840, and the of particular churches, is entitled to deannals of the church found in the pub- clare the terms of admission into its comlished reports of the proceedings of its munion, and the qualifications of its minecclesiastical judicatories. This church isters and members, as well as the whole does not differ very materially in doctrine system of its internal government which and worship, or in ecclesiastical govern Christ hath appointed ; that in the exer. ment and order, from any of the great cise of this right, they may, notwithstandfamily of anti-prelatical churches that ing, err in making the terms of communion sprung from the Reformation, and which either too lax or too narrow ; yet, even are commonly termed Calvinistic. in this case, they do not infringe upon the

It acknowledges no authority in things liberty or the rights of others, but only pertaining to the doctrines and duties of make an improper use of their own. the Christian Church, but the revealed That our blessed Saviour, for the edi. will of God as found in the sacred Scrip. fication of the visible church, which is his tures. It maintains

body, hath appointed officers, not only to That God alone is Lord of the con preach the gospel and administer the sascience, and hath left it free from the doc- craments, but also to exercise discipline, trine and commandments of men, which for the preservation of truth and duty ; are in any thing contrary to his word, or, and, that it is incumbent upon these offbeside it in matters of faith, or worship; | cers, and upon the whole church, in whose

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