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other motives which impel a man to raise his hand against himself.

Upon the evening before the Hoche sailed from Brest, the subject of suicide was fully discussed among the Irish, who formed a part of the expedition. They felt confident of success, should the French troops debark in safety upon the coast of Ireland; but they were equally certain, that, if captured at sea, they would all be condemned, and executed. Upon this a question arose, whether in the latter event, they should suffer themselves to be put to death according to the sentence and forms of law. Mr. Tone maintained that they ought; and, with his usual eloquence and animation, delivered his decided opinion, that, in no point of view in which he had ever considered suicide, could he hold it to be justifiable. It is supposed, that, in his own particular instance, he did not at this time anticipate an ignominious mode of death; but that he expected, in case of capture and condemnation, to be allowed the military privilege which he afterwards so earnestly claimed. Disappointed in this hope, he now committed the act which he had so lately reprobated. He was induced to do so either by a natural impulse of personal pride, of which he had not previously contemplated the powerful influence, or (as is conjectured by those who best knew him) out of consideration for the army of which he was a member, and for whose honour, in his estimation, no sacrifice could be too great.

Mr. Tone's execution was fixed for Monday, the 12th of Novem

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+ The gentleman who has communicated the above circumstances was present at the conversation. Independent of the moral arguments adduced against suicide, it was sug. gested by one of the company, that from political considerations, it would be better not to relieve, by any act of self-murder, the Irish government from the discredit in which numerous executions would involve it-an idea which, he says, Mr. Tone warmly approved. He adds, that when it appeared that the Hoche was likely to be captured, a boat was despatched to her from the Biche (a small, fast sailing vessel, which afterwards escaped into Brest) in order to bring off all the Irish on board; but that Mr. Tone could not be persuaded to avall himself of the opportunity.-O. (Wolfe Tone's own Memoirs tell every thing about him.-M.]

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ber. At an early hour upon that morning the sentinel who watched in his room having approached to awaken him, found him with his throat cut across, and apparently expiring. A surgeon was immediately called, who, on examining the wound, pronounced it not mortal, though extremely dangerous; to which Mr. Tone faintly answered, “ I find, then, I am but a bad anatomist.” The wound was dressed, with the design of prolonging life till the hour of one o'clock, the time appointed for his execution. In the interval a motion was made in the court of King's Bench by Mr. Curran, on an affidavit of Mr. Tone's father, stating that his son had been brought before a bench of officers, calling itself a courtmartial, and by them sentenced to death. “I do not pretend to say," observed Mr. Curran, " that Mr. Tone is not guilty of the charges of which he was accused; I presume the officers were honourable


but it is stated in the affidavit, as a solemn fact, that Mr. Tone had no commission under his majesty, and therefore no court-martial could have cognizance of any crime imputed to him, while the court of King's Bench sat in the capacity of the great criminal court of the land. In times when war was raging, when man was opposed to man in the field, courts martial might be endured; but every law authority is with me while I stand upon this sacred and immutable principle of the constitutionthat martial low and civil law are incompatible; and that the former must cease with the existence of the latter. This is not the time for arguing this momentous question. My client must appear in this court. He is cast for death this day. He may

be ordered for execution while I address you. I call on the court to support the law. I move for a habeas corpus to be directed to the provostmarshal of the barracks of Dublin, and Major Sands to bring up the body of Mr. Tone.”

Chief Justice.* _“Have a writ instantly prepared."

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* Lord Kilwarden.-0.

Mr. Curran.-"My client may die while this writ is preparing."

Chief Justice.“ Mr. Sheriff, proceed to the barracks, and acquaint the provost-marshal that a writ is preparing to suspend Mr. Tone's execution; and see that he be not executed."

The Court awaited, in a state of the utmost agitation, the return of the Sheriff.

Mr. Sheriff.—“My lords, I have been at the barracks, in pursuance of your order. The provost-marshal says he must obey Major Sands. Major Sands says he must obey Lord Cornwallis."

Mr. Curran.—“Mr. Tone's father, my lords, returns, after serving the habeas

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says General Craig will not obey it." Chief Justice.—"Mr. Sheriff, take the body of Tone into your custody. Take the provost-marshal and Major Sands into custody: and show the order of this court to General Craig."

Mr. Sheriff, who was understood to have been refused admittance at the barracks, returns.—“I have been at the barracks. Mr. Tone, having cut his throat last night, is not in a condition to be removed. As to the second part of your order, I could not meet the parties."

A French emigrant surgeon, whom General Craig had sent along with the Sheriff, was sworn.

Surgeon.—“I was sent to attend Mr. Tone this morning at four o'clock. His windpipe was divided. I took instant measures to secure his life, by closing the wound. There is no knowing, for four days, whether it will be mortal. His head is now kept in one position. A sentinel is over him, to prevent his speaking. His removal would kill him."

Mr. Curran applied for further surgical aid, and for the admission of Mr. Tone's friends to him. Refused.

Chief Justice.—“Let a rule be made for suspending the execution of Theobald Wolfe Tone; and let it be served on the proper person.”

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The prisoner lingered until the 19th day of November, when he expired, after having endured the most excruciating pain ;* and with his fate shall close the account of the part which Mr. Curran bore in the public transactions of this calamitous year.


* Mr. Tone had reached only his thirty-fourth year. His father was an eminent coachmaker in Dublin : he had sixteen children (thirteej sons and three daughters), of whom only five attained the age of maturity, and whose fates afford a singular instance of the Wanderings and calamities of a single family. Theobald died as before related. Matthew was executed the same year, in Dublin barracks, for high treason: it is said that no more than five persons were present at the execution. William was killed in India, a major in Holkar's service. Arthur accompanied his brother Theobald to America; and was subse. quently, at the early age of eighteen, appointed to the command of a frigate in the ser. vice of the Dutch republic: he is supposed to have perished at sea, as no account was ever after received of him. Mary was married to a foreign merchant, and died at St. Domingo. Their aged mother survives, and now [1819) resides in Dublin. After the death of Mr. Wolfe Tone, his widow and infant children were protected by the French republic; and, on the motion of Lucien Bonaparte, a pension granted for their support.-C.

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Effects of the Legislative Union upon Mr. Ourran's mind-Speech in Tandy's case—Speech

in behalf of Hevey-Allusion in the latter to Mr. Godwin-Mutual friendship of Mr. Curran and Mr. Godwin.


MR. Curran's history, during the eight remaining years of his forensic life, consists almost entirely of the causes of interest in which he was engaged. He was no longer in Parliament when the question of the Union was agitated and carried. This measure, which he had always deprecated as ruinous and disgraceful to his country, completed those feelings of political despondency to which the scenes of the rebellion, and the uniform failure of every struga gle to avert them, had been habituating his mind.* With the Union, which he considered as "the extinction of the Irish name," all his long cherished hopes for Ireland vanished for ever. From this last shock to his affections and his pride he never recovered. It was ever after present to his imagination, casting a gloom over all his political speculations, and interfering with the repose of his private hours. This sensibility to what so many others bore with complacency as a mere national disaster, will, perhaps, be ridiculed as affected, or doubted as incredible; but those who best know

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* Years before, while in Parliament, he had thus predicted the results of an Union :* It is very easy to conceive, that in case of such an event the inevitable consequence would be, an union with Great Britain. And if any one desires to know what that would be, I will tell him: It would be the emigration of every man of consequence from Ireland; it would be the participation of British taxes without British trade; it would be the extinction of the Irish name as a people. We should become a wretched colony, perhaps leased out to a company of Jers, as was formerly in contemplation, and governed by a few tax-gatherers and excisemon, unless possibly you may add N. teen or twenty couple of Irish members, who might be found every session sleeping in their collars under the manger of the British Minister.”—M.

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