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whereby (יאקר ,שכינה ,הכבוד) Hebrews variously call

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was to work out their spiritual and eternal salvation, of which that deliverance was a type and pledge.

$6. Exod. xix, 18_20; “And mount Sinai was “altogether on a smoke,” &c. As to him that presided and ruled the whole action, some Christians think it was a created angel, representing God, and speaking in his name.

But if this be so, we have no certainty of any thing that is affirmed in the scripture, that it may be referred directly and immediately to God; but we may, when we please, substitute a delegated angel in his room. For in no place, not in that concerning the creation of the world, is God himself more expressly spoken of. Besides, the psalmist, Psal. lxviii, 17; affirms, that when those chariots of God were on mount Sinai, Jehovah himself was in the midst of them. And this presence of God the

(, , ") they now understand a majestical and sanctifying presence. In reality it intends him who is the “bright“ness of his Father's glory, and the express image of “his person;" who was delegated to this work, as the great angel of the covenant, giving the law in the strength of the Lord, in the majesty of the name of the Lord his God.

$7. Exod. xxiii, 20-22; “Behold I send an an"gel,” &c. The angel here promised, is he who went in the midst of the people in the wilderness, whose glory appeared among them. It is said to the people concerning him (1930% own) "beware of him," or rather, take heed to thyself before him, before his face, in his presence. The verb(190) in Niphal, is sibi cavit; cave tibi. . And this is the caution that is usually given to the people, requiring that reverence and awe which is due to the holiness of the presence of God. It is added, (159p3 you») «and obey his voice.” This

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VOL. I.

is the great precept which is solemnly given, and so often reiterated in the law, with reference to God himself. Again, (13 a. 58) “provoke him not,” or rebel not against him. This is the usual word whereby God expresseth the transgression of his covenant; a rebellion that can be committed only against God alone. Of these precepts a two-fold reason is given, whereof the first is taken from the sovereign authority of the angel; “for he will not pardon your transgres“sions;" that is, as Joshua afterwards tells the same people, “he is an holy God, he is a jealous God, he “will not forgive your transgressions, nor your sins," Josh. xxiv, 19; namely, sins of rebellion, that break and disannul his covenant. And who can forgive sins but God? To suppose here a created angel, is to open a door to idolatry; for he, in whose power it is absolutely to pardon sin and punish it, must certainly be worshipped with religious adoration. Another reason is taken from his name, “for my name is in “him.” A more excellent name than any of the angels enjoy, Heb. i, 4. He is God, JEHOVAH, that is his name, and his nature answereth thereto. Hence, ver. 22, it is added, “if, indeed, thou obey his voice, and “do all that I speak.” His voice is the voice of God, in his speaking God speaketh. Moreover,

Moreover, Exod. xxxiii, 14, 15, God says, concerning this angel () my presence, my face shall go with thee; which presence Moses calls his glory, ver. 18, his essential glory, which was manifested to him, chap. xxxiv, 6; though but obscurely, in comparison of what it was to them, who, in his human nature, wherein dwelt the "fulness “of the Godhead bodily,” Col. ii, 9; beheld his glory, “the glory as of the only begotten of the father," John i, 14. For this face of God is he, whom if any one seeth, “he seeth the father,” John xiv, 9; because he

is the brightness of his glory, and the express image “of his person,” Heb. i, 3; he who accompanied the people in the wilderness, 1 Cor. x, 4; and whose merciful good pleasure towards them Moses prayed for, Deut. xxxii, 16; that is, the “Father of lights, from “whom descendeth every good and perfect gift,” Jam. i, 17. These things evidently express God, and none other; and yet he is said to be an angel sent of God, in his name, and to his work; so that he can be no other, but a certain person of the Deity, who accepted of this delegation, and was therein revealed to the church, as he who was to take upon him the seed of Abraham, and to be their eternal Redeemer.

$8. Josh. V, 13–15; "And it came to pass,” &c. The appearance here is of a man, a man of war, as God is called, Exod. xv, 3; armed with his sword drawn in his hand, as a token of the business he came about. At first sight Joshua apprehends him to be a man only, which occasioned his inquiry, Art thou for us, or for our adversaries? which discovers his courage and undaunted magnanimity; for doubtless the appearance was august and glorious. But he answered to this whole question, (MS) I am not; that is, not a man either of your party, or the enemy's, but quite another person, “the prince of the host of the Lord.” And this is another illustrious manifestation of the Son of God to the church of old, accompanied with many instructive circumstances. As

1. From the form wherein he appeared, namely, of a man, as a pledge of his future incarnation.

2. The title that he assumes to himself, “the Cap“tain of the Lord of hosts,” he to whom the guidance and conduct of them to rest, not only temporal, but eternal, was committed; whence the apostle, in allusion to this place and title, calls him “the Captain of "our Salvation,” Heb. ii, 10; and

3. The person to whom he spake, when he gave himself this title, was the "captain of the people,” at that time, teaching both him and them that there was another supreme captain of their eternal deliverance.

4. From the time and place of his appearance, which was upon the first entrance of the people into Canaan, and the first opposition they met with; so engaging his presence with the church in all things which oppose them in their way to eternal rest.

5. From the adoration and worship which Joshua gave him, which he accepted of, contrary to the duty and practice of created angels, Rev. xix, 10; and xxii, 8, 9.

6. From the prescription of the ceremonies expressing religious reverence, “put off thy shoes,” with the reason annexed, “for the place whereon thou standest (8097 097) it is holiness," made so by the presence of God; a precept similar to that given to Moses by the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, Exod. iii, 5. By all these things was the church instructed in the person, nature, and office of the Son of God; even in the mystery of his eternal distinct subsistence in the Deity, his future incarnation and condescension to the office of being the head, and Savior of his church.

These manifestations of the Son of God to the church of old, as the angel or messenger of the Father, subsisting in his own divine person, are all of them revelations of the promised seed, the great and only Savior and Deliverer of the church in his eternal preexistence, and pledges of his future incarnation, for the accomplishment of the whole work committed to him. And many other instances of the like nature may be added out of the former and latter prophets, which, because in most important circumstances they are coincident with these, need not here particularly be insisted on.

89. One signal instance of the Jewish master's apprehensions, concerning the Divine appearances, as an evidence of the truth insisted on, shall be here related in the words of Moses Nechmanides Gerundensis, on Exod. xxiii. His words run thus: “This angel, if we "speak exactly, is the angel the Redeemer, concerning “whom it it written, my name is in him, Exod. xxiii, “21; that angel, I say, who said to Jacob, I am the “God of Bethel, Gen. xxxi, 13. He, of whom it is “said, And God called to Moses out of the bush, Exod. “iii, 4. And he is called an angel, because he govern“eth the world. For it is written, Deut. vi, 21, The Lord our God, brought us out of the land of Egypt; "and elsewhere, Numb. xx, 16, He sent his angel, and "brought us out of Egypt. Moreover, it is written, Isa. “Ixiii, 9, And the angel of his face (presence) saved “them, namely, that angel who is the face of God; of "of whom it is said, Exod. xxxiii, 14, My face shall go “before thee, and I will cause thee to rest. Lastly, it “is that angel of whom the prophet speaks, Mal. iii, 1, “And the Lord, whom ye seek, shall suddenly 'come “to his temple; the angel of the covenant, whom ye “delight in.' His following words are to the same pur"pose: Mark diligently what is the meaning of these “words, “My face shall go before thee.' For Moses "and the Israelites always desired the chief angel; but “who that was, they could not truly understand; for, “neither could they learn of any others, nor obtain it “by prophecy. But the face of God signifieth God "himself; as all interpreters acknowledge. But no "man can have the least knowledge hereof, except he “be skilled in the mysteries of the law.” He adds,

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