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but very indifferent with Regard to our Interest, however folicitous they may be in cultivating what they may call their own ? *

Another Hardship is, not being suffered to go into those Manufactures which Nature has fitted and defigned us for. This Restraint, you are sensible, is laid upon us under the Pretence, left we should rival our Mother Country. Whereas God and Nature no doubt defigned, that every Part of the Globe should contribute its Quota towards the Wants and Advantages of human Life ; and to restrain any Part of the Earth, in this Respect, from political Considerations, is nothing less than laying an Embargo upon Nature, and Ihackling, as it were, Divine Providence itself. If we rival Europe in some Articles, Europe rivals us in others. Nature ought to have its free Course in this Respect, and not to be checked and put out of the Direction the God of Nature and the great King of Kings has given her Nor, indeed, are Princes aware what Injuries they do themselves, as well as what Hardfhips they lay their Subjects under, by Restraints of this kind : How many Countries have revolted, and others been lost and torn from their Mother Nations by being kept in this Bondage? And it will be well, if, by thus keeping down the American Colonies, and not letting us exert our natural Strength, we do not become a Prey to a foreign Power, instead of being a Defence to our Mother Country, as we might easily have been made ere this in inuch greater De

grees

* Without an Attendance to the above Confiderations, it is hard to conceive, how such enormous Encroachments could have been suf. fered to have taken place on our Territories in America, by the French and Spaniards; mere especially by the former, who have in a Manner covered that Country with their Forts, in order to maintain those Ener achments. See á Map published in the Gentleman's Magazine for July, 1755, where these Encroachments appear by Inspection, as alia the numerous Forts built in Defence of thein, many of which have beçn eructed since the Treaty of Aix la Chapelle.

grees than we are now capable of being, had we been fuffered to have exerted ourfelves in our own proper Sphere.

Another Instance of gross Neglect has been the not repelling, immediately and without any Lofs. of Time, the first Encroachments, whether on the Seacoaft, or Inland, or with regard to Ifands. foon as

ever Advice had been received that the French or Spaniards had invaded our Territories, or neutral Lands or Islands, and were beginning to settle and fortify themselves upon then, we should have gone against these Invaders directly, and have driven them out Sword in Hand; and not pretended to have entered into Treaty with People who will fpend Year after Year in treating with you, and keep all the while invading you, and fortifying themfelves in those Invasions, and then you may drive them out of their Encroachments how you can. If the French or Spaniards had 'any Demands upon us, they should have proposed them to us, and made their Claims; and if we would not have heard the Voice of Treaties, of Evidence, Reason and Jurtice, it would then have been Time enough for them to have had Recourse to Arms; but to invade us first, and then to talk about treating, is all a mere Joke.*

But once more, our Mother Country has been certainly wanting to us, as well as to herself, in not directing long since the building a strong Squadron of Ships here, where we have so many Materials towards it, and could so easily have manned them; which would have served as a Fleet of Observation to have watched the Sea-coafts, and prevented all Encroachments upon them, not to say on the neutral American Inands; and even the Landing of the last

late

* It was as long ago as July, 1754, that the French had the Infolence to attack Colonel Washington, and to drive him out of Fort Neceffity in Virginia, murdering a Number of his Men; at which Time the whole Garrison narrowly escapęd being put to the Sword,

late Armament from France, which may prove so fatal to us, if not counterwrought by a proper Reinforcement from England, might, in all Probability, have been prevented.

What shall I say to the giving up Čape-Breton ? Had we been suffered to keep that important Place, it might have prevented the present American War, by breaking, in a good Measure, the Chain which the French have formed between Canada and Louisiana. Certainly, as it was an American Conquest, it ought in Justice, and more especially in Policy, to have been left to America. And if all the Powers of Europe cannot, or will not make Head against France on the European Continent, why must America, a poor Infant Settlemerit of but about a Century or two’s Scanding be the Sacrifice ? Had we kept the Illand of Cape-Breton, it would have been a good Step towards driving the French intirely out of Annerica; and, it is much to be feared, we shall never have any solid Peace till that is done. In which Case, we had been in Condition to have lent our Mother Country incredible Affistance in a Time of War; whereas, now, by being thus reduced again into Bondage, we stand in Need of Asistance from her. Louisburg is the Dunkirk of America.

I come now to an Article of much Folly and Guilt: I mean no other than our Management of the Indians. These, we should have endeavoured, no doubt by all poflible Means, to have gained over to, and secured in our Interest, in Opposition to those in the Interest of France and Spain. This should have been attempted by all possible Application to their Minds and their Bodies. We should have endeavoured to have given them juft Notions of Life, natural, civil, and religious; and shewn them the Difference between the Friendship, the Service, and the Government of the English, and of the French and Spaniards. Where Reason had

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failed us, I mean where we had found the Indians incapable of the Convictions of Reason, we should have had Recourse to such other Confiderations as are immediate and palpable; and such as, confidering them as mere Animals only, they could not but have been sensible to.

After gaining over as many of the Adults as possible into our Interest, we should have been parti cularly attentive to the Education of their Children: In order to have worn out the Race of time wild Ina dians, we should have taught them cur Language, and the first Principles of our Learning, natural, civil, and religious ; initiated the in into the mechanical Trades, and shewn then the Conveniences and Accommodations of Life, in order to have drawn them off from the 'lavage Life of their Parents; and a few of Genius selected out from each Nation among them, might have been introduced to an Acquaintance with the liberal Arts, who might have been made Instruments to have gained others,

But there is the less Neceffity to enlarge upon this Head; as I have observed from Time to Time among the Advertisements found in the Gentleman's Magazine you sent me, a Treatise upon the Importance of gaining and preserving the Friendship of the Indians to the British Interest; which, however, I suppose, like Multitudes of your other Books, has lain by neglected among you, as it has done among us.

Lastly, it is Pity, methinks, that a Scheme, like, that obtaining among the French, was not set on Foot here; by which an immediate Estimate might be made of our natural, civil, and military Strength; which, more especially in a Time of War, might be of infinite Service.

I say nothing at present of the Neglect with Regard to the peopling of us more t:horoughly: Tho' there is Room, it is certain, to receive, and Work enough to employ; all the spare Hands of the Idlands

of

of Great Britain and Ireland : Nor need

you

have any single Beggar or Stroller left throughout the three Kingdoms.

Nor do I take any Notice of the Deficiencies in the forming and training our Militia, or those already settled among us.

These, together with several other Articles natural, civil, and religious, will be the Subject of another Year's Letters, if Providence fall permit the Continuance of the Correspondence; which, however, considering my Age and the Troubles in View, is not, I am afraid, very probable.

Thus, Sir, I have laid before you a Specimen of our Grievances ; some of them occasioned by our own Indolence, and others by the Neglect of our Mother Country. You compassionate us, I do not question, harrassed by Robbers on either Side, the Inhabitants of Canada and Louisiana, not to say the French and Spaniards*; but, Sir, Pity alone, give me Leave to tell you, will not do. You must lend us Supplies. Veterans and Engineers are the People that we want to mix with our raw Levies, and to pit against the Veterans and Engineers of France ; without a timely and powerful Supply of which, God only knows what must be the Consequence.

Adieu, dear Sir, and may Heaven avert the melancholy Appearances which now threaten us.

Make my Compliments to all our common Friends, and particularly to the Reverend Mr. - and his very agreeable Family, letting him know how fincerely glad I now am, that he did not accept my pressing Invitations of settling here, offered him when I was last in England. Since, if there are not already enow of us to repel the French, there are,

however,

It is not long fince we had Advice that the Spaniards had rebuilt the Forts of Encroachment in Georgia, which had been demolished by General Ogletborpe during his Government of that Colony; to say nothing of their late Conduct in regard to our Settlements in the Bays of Honduras and Campearby.

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