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pends entirely on the Circumstances and Character of the Person that speaks it, and then by an Association of Ideas, our Minds may be greatly affected : · and in a Description of the Jaws of Hell, which of itself gives us Images of dreadful. Magnificence, a thick Exhalation of Smoke and Stench may be brought in to correfpond with our preconceived Notions, and fo give a Finishing to the Description ; but a Stench on a Dunghill would create no Sublimity: Our Author has not distinguished between the efficient Causes of the Sublime, and the concomitant Circumftances which help to increase it. He concludes this Part of his Book with observing that the Sublime belongs entirely to the Passions of Self-preservation, which turn upon Pain and Danger: and this Position seems to have led him into a Miltake throughout his Work: the Sublime belongs to no particular Paffion, but is greatly heightened by them all. Whatever fills the Mind with magnificent Ideas is Sublime. For it is certain that all the Pasions of the human Mind may be suborned Promoters of whatever is

great cellent in any Conception or Description. All our selfish and social Affections, Terror, Ambition, Resentment, Rage, Grief, Compaffion, Indignation, &c. naturally tend to enflame our Minds with that Enthusiasm which Longinus mentions; and it is certain that an impaflioned Sublime is the noblest Emotion of which we are capable. It is unnecessary to quote Instances, where Grief, Compassion, and even our tenderest Sympathies, bring in their auxiliary Aid, to render a noble Thought more glowing: and the Description of the Night Scene in Mr. Pope's Homer will evince that the Sublime may excite Sen{ations very different from Terror.

As when the Moon, refulgent Lamp of Night, O'er Heaven's clear Azure spreads her sacred Lights


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When not a Breath disturbs the deep Serene,
And not a Cloud o'ercasts the folemn Scene;
Around her Throne the vivid Planets roll,
And Stars unnumber'd gild the glowing Pole;
O'er the dark Trees a yellower Verdure shed,
And tip with Silver every Mountain's Head.
Then Ihine the Vales, the Rocks in Prospect risë,
A Flood of Glory bursts from all the Skies;
The conscious Swains rejoicing in the Sight,
Eye the blue Vault, and bless the useful Light.

γέγηθε δέ τε φρένα σοκμήν. and the Shepherd's Heart rejoiceth, says Homer ;' which shews that the Sublime can excite Ideas very different from Terror; and though it may be said, that there will be a Kind of Solemnity in the Mind at the View of such a Night-piece, yet that is only the Stillness natural to Admiration, and Gladness will still be the prevalent Sensation.

The next part of the Enquiry relates to Beauty ; and we are told that Proportion is not essential to it. Our Author considers Proportion in the vegetable World, in the Brute Creation, and in the human Species, and does not find it a necessary. Quality. This is certainly a new Philosophy, but we apprehend very erroneous.. Proportion is not Beauty itself, but one of its efficient Qualities. A partial Beauty may be seen ;. that is to say, an handsome Face, or an handsome Leg; but, we apprehend, a beautiful and entire Whole never existed without Proportion and Fitness. This we think so apparent, that it need not be infifted on; if the Reader has a Mind to satisfy himself on this Head, we refer him to Hutchinson and others. He adds besides, that Perfection is not the Cause of Beauty; and the Reason is extraordinary, because Women learn to lisp, to totter, to counterfeit Weakness, &c. -But such Affectation is universally acknowledged to be ridiculous. He finds Fault with the Application of Beautiful to Virtue; though it is observed by Mr. Locke, that most Words which denote Operations of the Mind are derived from the Objects of bodily Sensation. He then enumerates the Causes of Beauty; such as Smallness in the Object, Smoothness, and unwittingly, allows Proportion under another Name. The View,' fays he, of a beautiful Bird + will illuftrate this Observation. Here we see the • Head increasing sensibly to the Middle, from


whence it lessens gradually until it mixes with the - Neck; the Neck loses itself in a larger Swell,

which continues to the Middle of the Body, when ' the Whole decreases again to the Tail; the Tail ' takes a new Direction ; but it soon varies its new · Course; it blends again with the other Parts; and • the Line is perpetually and insensibly changing, . above, below, upon every Side. In this Description . I have before me the Idea of a Dove; it

agrees very well with most of the Conditions of Beauty.' Here then it appears he deceives himself with what he calls gradual Variation, which, in fact, is another Name for Proportion. Delicacy, Colour, and Expression in the Countenance, he next confiders; and he observes, that Gracefulness is an Idea belonging to Posture and Motion, In both these, to

be graceful, it is requisite that there be no Appearance of Difficulty, there is required a small In

flection of the Body; and a Composure of the • Parts, in such a Manner, as not to incumber each

other, nor to appear divided by sharp and sudden Angles. In this case, this Roundness and Delicacy

of Attitude and Motion, it is that all the Magic of • Grace consists, and what is called its Je ne fcai quoi, as will be more obvious to any Body who • considers attentively the Venus de Medicis, the Antinous, or any ftatue generally allowed to be graces ful in an high Degree.'


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He then applies Beautiful to all our other Senses; he looks for it in Feeling, in Sounds, in Taste and Smell; and as this is ever done metaphorically in Language, it is surprising our Author would not allow the Phrase to be translated to Modes of the Mind by the fame Analogy,

He then compares the Sublime and the Beautiful; and because he finds that the latter is founded on Pleasure, he imagines, by Way of Contrast, that the Sublime must be founded on Pain. But we have seen in Instances already produced (and there are numberless more) that it is also founded on Pleasure. However, he proceeds with his Hypothefis; he examines the visible Effects of Pain on the human Frame: He says, that Fear operates much in the fame Manner as positive Pain ; and thence he infers, that whatever operates on the Nerves in a similar Manner, muft necessarily excite Ideas of the Sublime; and in this Manner he accounts why Greathess of Dimension is Sublime; because, says he,

the Ray from every diftinct Point makes an Impreffion on the Retina. So that though the Image s of oné Point should cause but a small Tension

of this Membrane, another and another, and an« other Stroke, muft, in their Progress, cause a very

great one, until it arrives at last to the highest De

gree; and the whole Capacity of the Eye, vibrats . ing in all its Parts, must approach near to the Na

ture of what causes Pain, and consequently muft • produce an Idea of the Sublime. But the Eye of Homer's Shepherd must have received a great Im. pression, and yet we find his Heart did not feel Terror, but Gladness. A Stock-Broker in the Alley making a long Calculation, seems to be in the Situs ation of a Man suffering Pain; his Teeth are fet, his Eye-Brows are violently contracted, and his Nerves feel a Contraction or a Tension ; but we apprehend no one will suspect that a single Idea of the

Sublime Sublime ever entered his Imagination, unless the Terror he feels when the Stocks are falling may be called fo. There is no Necessity that what borders upon Pain in its Operations on our Nerves should produce the Sublime, because we know that in many Cases we may have a Tension or Contraction with out adverting to it, and yet feel no elevated Emo. tions; as in looking at the Manfion-House, where we may fatigue the Eye, but never perceive any thing magnificent; Vastness alone not being enough to constitute the Sublime. He endeavours to refute Mr. Locke's Opinion, and asserts, that Darkness is terrible in its own Nature: To support which, he tells a curious Story from Cheselden, of a Boy who s had been born blind, and continued so until he

was thirteen or fourteen Years old: He was then + couched for a Cataract, by which Operation he

received his Sight. Among many remarkable Par* ticulars that attended his first Perceptions and Judge

ments on visual Objects, Cheselden tells us, that the “ firft Time the Boy saw a black Object, it gave him

great Uneasiness; and that some Time after, upon

accidentally seeing a Negro Woman, he was struck < with great Horror at the Sight.' It does not appear that this Boy had any Ideas of the Sublime, or that the Negro Woman appeared magnificent in his Eyes: His Horror, we should think, proceeded from the Novelty of an Object so different from his Fel. low-creatures, and it does not appear that the coming on of the Night was any Way terrible to him, which we should imagine it would at first, if Darkness were terrible in its Nature. We are therefore still apt to think Mr. Locke right in making Darkness formidable from an Association of Ideas, and that Association of Ideas will help to increase the Sublime. Having discoursed of Pain, our Author proceeds to the phyfical Cause of Love. When we have before us; says he, such Objects as ex

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