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ridiculous. He finds Fault with the Application of Beautiful to Virtue; though it is observed by Mr. Locke, that most Words which denote Operations of the Mind are derived from the Objects of bodily Sensation. He then enumerates the Causes of Beauty; such as Smallness in the Object, Smoothness, and unwittingly allows Proportion under another Name. · The View,' says he, of a beautiful Bird

will illustrate this Observation. Here we see the

Head increasing sensibly to the Middle, from whence ' it leffens gradually until it mixes with the Neck ;

the Neck loses itself in a larger Swell, which continues to the Middle of the Body, when the • Whole decreases again to the Tail; the Tail takes

a new Direction; but it soon varies its new Course; it blends again with the other Parts; and the Line is perpetually and insensibly changing, above, below, upon every Side. In this Description I have before me the idea of a Dove; it agrees very well with most of the Conditions of Beauty.' Here then it appears, he deceives himself with what he calls gradual Variation, which, in Fact, is another Name for Proportion. Delicacy, Colour, and Expreffion in the Countenance, he next confiders; and he observes, that Gracefulness is an Idea belonging to Posture and Motion. In both these, to be graceful, it is requisite that there be no Appearance of Difficulty; there is required a small Inflection of the Body; and a Composure of the Parts, in fuch a Manner, as not to incumber each other, nor to appear divided by sharp and sudden Angles. In this Cafe, this Roundness and Delicacy of Attude and Motion, it is that all the Magic of Grace

confifts, and what is called its Je ne scai quoi, as ? will be more obvious to any Body who considers attentively the Venus de Medicis, the Antinous, or

any Statue generally allowed to be graceful in an high Degree,' E 3


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He then applies Beautiful to all our other Senses; he looks for it in Feeling, in Sounds, in Taste and Smell; and as this is ever done metaphorically in Language, it is surprising our Author 'would not allow the Phrase to be translated to Modes of the Mind by the fame Analogy.

He then compares the Sublime and the Beautiful, and because he finds that the latter is founded on Pleasure, he imagines, by way of Contrast, that the Sublime must be founded on Pain. But we have seen in Instances already produced (and there are numberless more) that it is also founded on Pleasure, However, he proceeds

with his

Hypothesis ; he examines the visible Effects of Pain on the human Frame: He says, that Fear operates much in the fame Manner as positive Pain; and thence he infers, that whatever operates on the Nerves in a fimilar Manner, must necessarily excite Ideas of the Sublime; and in this Manner he accounts why Greatnefs of Dimension is Sublime ; because, fays he, 'the Ray from every distinct Point makes an Im

preffion on the Retina. So that though the Image of one Point should cause but a fmall Tenfion. of this Membrane, another and another, and another Stroke, must, in their Progress, cause a very great one, until it arrives at last to the highest Degree ; and the whole Capacity of the Eye, vibrabrating in all its Parts, muft approach near to the Nature of what causes Pain, and consequently must produce an Idea of the Sublime.' But the Eye of Homer's Shepherd must have received a great Impression, and yet we find his Heart did not feel Terror but Gladness. A Stock Broker in the Alley making a long Calculation, seems to be in the Situation of a Man suffering Pain; his Teeth are fet, his Eye-brows are violently contracted, and his Nerves feel a Contraction or a Tenfion; but we apprehend no one will suspect that a single Idea of the


Sublime ever entered his Imagination, unless the Terror he feels when the Stocks are falling may be called fo. There is no Necessity that what borders upon Pain in its Operations on our Nerves thould produce the Sublime, because we know that many Cases we may have a Tension or Contraction with out adverting to it, and yet feel no elevated Emotions; as in looking at the Mansion-house, where we may fatigue the Eye, but never perceive any

Thing magnificent: Valtness alone not being enough to constitute the Sublime. He endeavours to refute Mr. Locke's Opinion, and asserts, that Darkness is terrible in its own Nature : To support which, he tells a curious Story from Chefelden, of a Boy who

had been born Blind, and continued so until he was thirteen or fourteen Years old : He was then couched for a Cataract, by which Operation he received his Sight. Among many remarkable Particulars that attended his first Perceptions and Judgments on visual Objects, Chefelden tells us, that

the first Time the Boy faw a black Object it gave s him great Uneasiness; and that fome Time after, upon accidentally seeing a Negroe Woman, he was

ftruck with great Horror at the Sight." It does not appear that this Boy had any Ideas of the Sublime, or that the Negroe Woman appeared magnificent in his Eyes: His Horror, we should think, proceeded from the Novelty of an Object so different from his Fellow-creatures; and it does not appear that the coming on of the Night was any Way terrible to him, which we should imagine it would at first, if Darkness were terrible in its Nature. We are therefore still apt to think Mr. Locke right in making Darkness formidable from an Association of Ideas, and that Association of Ideas will help to increase the Sublime. Having discoursed of Pain, our Author proceeds to the physical Cause of Love. When we have before us, says he, "fuch Objects as ex

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cite Love and Complacency, the Body is affected, ' fo far as I could observe, much in the following "Manner : The Head reclines something on one * Side ; the Eye-lids are more closed than usual, and

the Eyes roll gently with an Inclination to the Object; the Mouth is a little opened, and the Breath drawn flowly, with now and then a low Sigh; the whole Body is composed, and the Hands fall

idly to the Sides. All this is accompanied with an (inward Sense of Melting and Languor. These

Appearances are always proportioned to the Degree of Beauty in the Object, and of Sensibility in the « Observer. And this Gradation from the highest Pitch of Beauty and Sensibility, even to the lowest

of Mediocrity and Indifference; and their corre• spondent Effects ought to be kept in view, else this

Description will seem exaggerated, which it cer

tainly is not.': Whatever affects us in the above Manner, he proceeds to call Beautiful, in the same Manner as he has said the Sublime will grow on Pain. We agree with him, that the Beautiful must depend on the softer Affections of Love and Pleasure; for what is painful can never be accounted to belong to Beauty : But the Sublime will exist with Beauty, or partial Ugliness, and may be heightened by all our Passions as well as Terror.

Having discussed the Beautiful, our Author attempts to prove, that the Effects of Poetry is not by raising Ideas of Things. I shall begin,' says he, with compound abstract Words, such as Virtue, "Hongur, Persuasion, Docility; of these I am con

vinced, that whatever Power they may have on the Palsions, they do not derive it from any Representation raised in the Mind of the Things for

which they stand.' It is very possible, that on hearing any one of these Words a Man may not instantly have in view all the Ideas that are combined in the complex one: As for Instance, when

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Virțue is named, he may not think of the Relations in which a Man ftands to God, his Neighbour, and himself; but he may have the general Idea of acting uprightly, and that is enough for the Poet's Purpose. If it were true that Words revive the Senfations we originally felt, without recalling the Ideas to our Mind, D-k might be as good a Poet as Akenfide; because he might use all the words that are most apt to affect us, and then he would agitate our Passions as forcibly as a Man of Genius. He who is most picturesque and clearest in his Imagery, is ever stiled the best Poet, because from such a one we see Things clearer, and of course we feel more intensely. It is a Disposition to feel the Force of Words, and to combine the Ideas annexed to them with Quickness that shews one Man's Imagination to be better than another's, and distinguishes the fine Taste from Dullness and Stupidity. Our Author would have Poetry to operate like Music, by Sensation : But he should recollect, that Music has its Effects no otherwise than by an Association of Ideas which it assembles in the Fancy, and by that Means it is that it depresses us with Grief, or inAames with Rage, &c. : The Instance of Blacklock. the blind Poet, Terves only to prove that Poetry may be wrote mechanically, by combining Words' after the Usage of other Writers; though it is not to be doubted but Mr. Blacklock had annexed Ideas of fome Sort in his own Mind to all the visual Objects he mentions. Our Author allows Poetry to be an, imitative Art as far as it describes Manners and Pasfions of Men; but says, descriptive Poetry operates chiefly by Substitution, by Means of Sounds that stand for Things. But all Words are substituted for Things, and there is as much Imitation in describing a Scene in Nature, as in describing the Actions of human Kind; for the Likeness in both Cases is represented to us.

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