To Rise in Darkness: Revolution, Repression, and Memory in El Salvador, 1920–1932
To Rise in Darkness offers a new perspective on a defining moment in modern Central American history. In January 1932 thousands of indigenous and ladino (non-Indian) rural laborers, provoked by electoral fraud and the repression of strikes, rose up and took control of several municipalities in central and western El Salvador. Within days the military and civilian militias retook the towns and executed thousands of people, most of whom were indigenous. This event, known as la Matanza (the massacre), has received relatively little scholarly attention. In To Rise in Darkness, Jeffrey L. Gould and Aldo A. Lauria-Santiago investigate memories of the massacre and its long-term cultural and political consequences.
Gould conducted more than two hundred interviews with survivors of la Matanza and their descendants. He and Lauria-Santiago combine individual accounts with documentary sources from archives in El Salvador, Guatemala, Washington, London, and Moscow. They describe the political, economic, and cultural landscape of El Salvador during the 1920s and early 1930s, and offer a detailed narrative of the uprising and massacre. The authors challenge the prevailing idea that the Communist organizers of the uprising and the rural Indians who participated in it were two distinct groups. Gould and Lauria-Santiago demonstrate that many Communist militants were themselves rural Indians, some of whom had been union activists on the coffee plantations for several years prior to the rebellion. Moreover, by meticulously documenting local variations in class relations, ethnic identity, and political commitment, the authors show that those groups considered “Indian” in western El Salvador were far from homogeneous. The united revolutionary movement of January 1932 emerged out of significant cultural difference and conflict.
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About seventy- Garden five percent of the co√ee is raised on property held by
small landowners of the poor and the lower middle classes, and eighty-five
percent of the na- tional commerce is in their hands. So engrossed are these ...
The weakness of this model became visible during the export crisis of 1921,
when co√ee and silver prices and exports Garden plummeted. The
government's solution was to transfer a smaller state debt of from British interests
to banks in the ...
co√ee lands did not form part of large haciendas or plantations. In 1920 only the
350 largest of the 3,400 commercial co√ee farms possessed between 75 7 and
300 manzanas (125–500 acres), accounting for 45 percent of national ...
10 co√ee finca. From there, through the development of techniques to increase
productivity and an intense work ethic, the family gradually acquired more
holdings. Among its numerous achievements in the field of co√ee production
was the ...
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Politics and Labor in the 1920s
The Social Geography and Culture of Mobilization
Ethnic Conflict and Mestizajein Western Salvador 19141931
Repression and Radicalization September 1931January 1932
The Insurrection of January 1932
The Counter revolutionary Massacres
The Political and Cultural Consequences of 1932