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The judgments of the

ISAIAH.

Lord
upon

the wicked. A: M. cir. 3244. neither is there any end of their down, and the Lord alone shall 4 M.CI. 32.00. Anno Olymp. treasures ; their land is also full | be exalted in that day.

Anno Olymp. Quintæ I.

Quintæ 1 Ante Urbem

of horses, neither is there any 12 For the day of the LORD Conditam 7.

Conditam 7. end of their chariots :

of hosts shall be upon every one 8 s'Their land also is full of idols ; they that is proud and lofty, and upon every one worship the work of their own hands, that that is listed up; and he shall be brought low. which their own fingers have made :

13 And upon all w the cedars of Lebanon, 9 And the mean man boweth down, and the that are high and lifted up, and upon all the great man humbleih himself: therefore for- oaks of Bashan, give them not.

14 And * upon all the high mountains, and 10 · Enter into the rock, and hide thee in upon all the hills that are lifted up, the dust, for fear of the Lord, and for the 15 And upon every high tower, and upon glory of his majesty.

every fenced wall, 11 The lofty looks of man shall be humbled, 16 y And upon all the ships of Tarshish, and the haughtiness of men shall be bowed and upon all ? pleasant pictures.

• Jer. ii. 28. — Ver. 19, 21 ; Rev. vi. 15. — Ver. 17; chap. Hos. ii. 16, 18, 21; Joel in. 18 ; Amos ix. 11; Obad. 8 ; Mic.iv v. 15, 16; xiv. 11.- - Chap. iv. 1; xi. 10, 11; xii. 1, 4; xxiv. 6; v. 10; vii. 11, 12 ; Zeph. 11. 11,16; Zech. ix. 16. Chap 21 ; xxv. 9; xxvi. I; xxvii. 1, 2, 12, 13 ; xxviii. 5; xxix. 18; xxx. xiv. 8; xxxvii. 24; Ezek. xxx. i. 3; Zech. xi. 1, 2. Chap. xxx. 23 ; lii. 6; Jer. xxx. 7,8; Ezek. xxxviii. 14, 19; xxxix. 11, 22; 25. - 1 Kings x. 22.—2 Heb. pictures of desire. Solomon's days had “made silver and gold as plenteous 1 Sam. xix. 13, and compare Gen. xxxi. 34,) of differat Jerusalem as stones," 2 Chron. i. 15. He had an ent magnitude, used for idolatrous and superstitious army of 307,500 men, in which, as we may infer from purposes, particularly for divination, and as oracles, the testimony of Isaiah, the chariots and horse made a which they consulted for direction in their affairs. considerable part. “The law above mentioned was Verse 9. Boweth down—“Shall he bowed down"} to be a standing trial of prince and people, whether This has reference to the preceding verse. They they had trust and confidence in God their deliverer." bowed themselves down to their idols, therefore shall See Bp. Sherlock's Discourses on Prophecy, Dissert. they be bowed down and brought low under the avengiv., where he has excellently explained the reason and ing hand of God. effect of the law, and the influence which the observ- Therefore forgive them not.] And thou wilt not ance or neglect of it had on the affairs of the Israelites. forgive them.”—L.

Verse 8. Their land also is full of idols—“And his Verse 10. “When he ariseth to strike the earth land is filled with idols") Uzziah and Jotham are with terror.”] On the authority of the Septuagint, both said, 2 Kings xv. 3, 4, 34, 35, “to have done confirmed by the Arabic and an ancient MS., I have that which was right in the sight of the Lord ;” that added here to the text a line, which in the 19th and is, to have adhered to and maintained the legal wor- 21st verses is repeated together with the preceding ship of God, in opposition to idolatry and all irregular line, and has, I think, evidently been omitted by misworship; for to this sense the meaning of that phrase take in this place. The MS. here varies only in one is commonly to be restrained ; “save that the high letter from the reading of the other two verses; it has places were not removed where the people still sacri- po baarets, instead of 1187 haarets.

None of De ficed and burned incense.” There was hardly any Rossi's MSS. confirm this addition. The line added is, time when they were quite free from this irregular and when he ariseth to strike the earth with terror. unlawful practice, which they seem to have looked Verse 11. Be humbled] “nul sov shaphel veshach, upon as very consistent with the true worship of God; read no 1550 shaphelu shach.Dr. Durell. Which and which seems in some measure to have been tole- rectifies the grammatical construction. No MS. or rated, while the tabernacle was removed from place to version confirms this reading. place, and before the temple was built. Even after Verses 13-16. And upon all the cedars—“Even the conversion of Manasseh, when he had removed against all the cedars") · Princes, potentates, rulers, the strange gods, and commanded Judah to serve Je-captains, rich men, &c.—So Kimchi. These verses HOVAH the God of Israel, it is added, “ Nevertheless afford us a striking example of that peculiar way of the people did sacrifice still on the high places, yet writing, which makes a principal characteristic of the unto Jehovan their God only,” 2 Chron. xxxiii. 17. parabolical or poetical style of the Hebrews, and in The worshipping on the high places therefore does not which the prophets deal so largely, namely, their mannecessarily imply idolatry; and from what is said of ner of exhibiting things Divine, spiritual, moral, and these two kings, Uzziah and Jotham, we may presume political, by a set of images taken from things natural, that the public exercise of idolatrous worship was not artificial, religious, historical, in the way of metaphor permitted in their time. The idols therefore here or allegory. Of these nature furnishes much the spoken of must have been such as were designed for largest and the most pleasing share ; and all poetry à private and secret use. Such probably were the has chiefly recourse to natural images, as the richest teraphim so often mentioned in Scripture ; a kind of and most powerful source of illustration. household gods, of human form, as it should seem, (see be observed of the Hebrew poetry in particular, that

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But it may

The vanity of

CHAP. II.

trusting in idols A. M. cir. 3244. 17 . And the loftiness of man B. C. cir. 760.

20 h In that day a man shall 4. M. cir. 3244.

B. C. . . Anno Olymp. shall be bowed down, and the cast i his idols of silver, and his Anno Olymp. Quintæ I.

Quintæ I. Ante Urbem haughtiness of men shall be made idols of gold, which they made Ante Urbem Conditam 7. low and the LORD alone shall each one for himself to worship,

Conditam 7. be exalted b in that day.

to the moles and to the bats ; 18 And the idols he shall utterly abolish. 21 "To go into the clefts of the rocks, and

19 And they shall go into the holes of the into the tops of the ragged rocks, m for fear of rocks, and into the caves of e the earth, ' for the Lord, and for the glory of his majesty, fear of the LORD, and for the glory of his ma- when he ariseth to shake terribly the earth. jesty, when he ariseth to shake terribly the 22 " Cease ye from man,whose "breath is in his earth.

nostrils : for wherein is he to be accounted of?

- Ver. 11.- Ver. 11:~ Or, the idols shall utterly pass away. Heb. xii. 26. Chap. xxx. 22 ; xxxi. 27.- i Heb. the idols of

Ver. 10; Hos. x. 8; Luk xxiii. 30 ; Rev, vi. 16; ix. 6.-_e Heb. his silver, &c. * Or, which they made for him. — Ver. 19. the dusi.—2 Thess. i, 1.5 Chap. xxx. 32; Hag. ij. 6, 21;

m Ver. 10, 19. - Psa, cxlvi. 3 ; Jer. xvii. 5. - Job xxvii. 3.

in the use of such images, and in the application of (2 Chron. ix. 21,) and they brought gold from Ophir, them in the way of illustration and ornament, it is probably on the coast of Arabia ; silver from Tartesmore regular and constant than any other poetry what- sus; and ivory, apes, and peacocks, from Africa. ever; that it has for the most part a set of images "99918 Afri, Africa, the Roman termination, Africa appropriated in a manner to the explieation of certain terra. vivir Tarshish, some city or country in Africa. subjects. Thus you will find, in many other places So the Chaldee ou 1 Kings xxii. 49, where it renders besides this before us, that cedars of Lebanon and oaks von Tarshish by pinox Aphričah ; and compare of Bashan, are used in the way of metaphor and alle- 2 Chron. XX. 36, from whence it appears, to go to gory for kings, princes, potentates of the highest rank; Ophir and to Tarshish is one and the same thing.”. high mountains and lofly hills, for kingdoms, repub-Dr. Jubb. It is certain that under Pharaoh Necho, lics, states, eities; towers and fortresses, for defend about two hundred years afterwards, this voyage was ers and protectors, whether by counsel or strength, made by the Egyptiạns ; Herodot. iv. 42. They in peace or war; ships of Tarshish and works of art, sailed from the Red Sea, and returned by the Mediand invention employed in adorning them, for mer- terranean, and they performed it in three years, just chants, men enriched by commerce, and abounding in the same time that the voyage under Solomon had all the luxuries and elegances of life, such as those taken up. It appears likewise from Pliny, Nat. Hist., of Tyre and Sidon ; for it appears from the course of ii. 67, that the passage round the Cape of Good Hope the whole passage, and from the train of ideas, that the was known and frequently practised before his time, fortresses and the ships are to be taken metaphorically, by. Hanno the Carthaginian, when Carthage was in its as well as the high trees and the lofty mountains. glory, by,one Eudoxus, in the time of Ptolemy La

Ships of Tarshish] Are in Scripture frequently used thyrus, king of Egypt; and Cælus Antipater, a histoby a metonymy for ships in general, especially such as rian of good credit, somewhat earlier than Pliny, tesare employed in carrying on traffic between distant tifies that he had seen a merchant who had made the countries, as Tarshish was the most celebrated mart voyage from Gades to Ethiopia. The Portuguese of those times, frequented of old by the Phenicians, under Vasco de Gama, near three hundred years ago, and the principal source of wealth to Judea and the recovered this navigation, after it had been intermitted neighbouring countries. The learned seem now to be and lost for many centuries.-L. perfectly well agreed that Tarshish is Tartessus, à city Verse 18. Shall utterly abolish—“Shall disappear") of Spain, at the mouth of the river Bætis, whence the The ancient versions and an ancient MS. read ohne Phænicians, who first opened this trade, brought silver yachalpu, plural. One of my MSS. reads qismi yachaand gold, (Jer. x. 9; Ezek. xxvii. 12,) in which that loph; probably a mistake for 105no yachalpu. country then abounded ; and, pursuing their voyage Verses 19–21. Into the holes of the rocks—" Into still farther to the Cassiterides, (Bocharl, Canaan, i. caverns of rocks”] The country of Judea being mounc. 39; Heut. Hist. de Commerce, p. 194,) the islands tainous and rocky, is full of caverns, as appears from of Scilly and Cornwall, they brought from thence lead the bistory of David's persecution under Saul. At Enand tin.

gedi, in particular, there was a cave so large that DaTarshish is celebrated in Scripture, 2 Chron, viii. yid with six hundred men hid themselves in the sides 17, 18, ix. 21, for the trade which Solomon carried of it; and Saul entered the mouth of the cave without on thither, in conjunction with the Tyrians. Jehosha- perceiving that any one was there, 1 Sam. xxiv. Jophat, 1 Kings xxii. 48, 2 Chron. xx. 36, attempted sephus, Antiq., lib, xiv., c. 15, and Bell. Jud., lib. 1, afterwards to repew their trade. And from the ac- c. 16, tells us of a numerous gang of banditti, who, count given of his attempt it appears that his fleet was having infested the country, and being pursued by He to sail to Ezion-geber on the Red Sea; they must rod with his army, retired into certain caverns almost therefore have designed to sail round Africa, as Solo- inaccessible, near Arbela in Galilee, where they were mon's fleet had done before, (see Huet, Histoire de with great difficulty subdued. Some of these were Commerce, p. 32;) for it was a three years' voyage, natural, others artificial. Beyond Damascus," says

The Babylonish

ISAIAH.

caplivily foretold. Strabo, lib. xvi.," are two mountains called Trachones; and see Jer. xli. 9. Therefore “ to enter into the from which the country has the name of Trachonitis ; Trock, to go into the holes of the rocks, and into the and from hence towards Arabia and Iturea, are certain caves of the earth,” was to them a very proper and rugged mountains, in which there are deep caverns, familiar image to express terror and consternation. one of which will hold four thousand men." Tarer-. The prophet Hosea, chap. x. 8, hath carried the same nier, Voyage de Perse, part ii., chap. 4, speaks of a image farther, and added great strength and spirit to it : grot, between Aleppo and Bir, that would hold near

“ They shall say to the mountains, Cover us ; three thousand horse. « Three hours distant from

And to the hills, Fall on üs ;" Sidon, about a mile from the sea, there runs along a high rocky mountain, in the sides of which are hewn which image, together with these of Isaiāh, is adopta multitude of grots, all very little differing from each ed by the sublime author of the Revelation, chap. vi. other. They have entrances about two feet square : 15, 16, who frequently borrows his inagery from our on the inside you find in most or all of them a room prophet.-L. of about four yards square.

There are of these sub- Verse 20. Which they made each one for himself terraneous caverns two hundred in number. It may, to worship——“Which they have made to worship") with probability at least, be concluded that these places The word is lo, for himself, is omitted by two ancient were contrived for the use of the living, and not of the MSS., and is unnecessary. It does not appear that dead. Strabo describes the habitations of the Troglo- any copy of the Septuagint has it, except MS. Pachom, dytæ to have been somewhat of this kind.”—Maun- and MS. 1. D. 11., and they have eavtais, ons lahem, drell, p. 118. :· The Horites, who dwelt in Mount to themselves. Seir, were Troglodytæ, as their name, Oinh horim, To the moles] They shall carry their idols with imports. But those mentioned by Strabo were on them into the dark caverns, old ruins, or desolate each side of the Arabian gulf. Mohammed (Koran, places, to which they shall flee for refuge ; and so chap. xv. xxvi.) speaks of a tribe of Arabians, the shall give them up, and relinquish them to the filthy tribe of Thamud, “ who hewed houses out of the animals that frequent such places, and have taken posmountains, to secure themselves.” Thus, “because session of them as their proper habitation. Bellonius, of the Midianites, the children of Israel made them the Greaves, P. Lucas, and many other travellers, speak dens which are in the mountains, and caves and strong of bats of an enormous size, as inhabiting the Great holds,” Judg. vi. 2. To these they betook themselves Pyramid. See Harmer, Obs., vol. ii., 455. Three for refuge in times of distress and hostile invasion : MSS. express' n10non chapharperoth, the' moles, as " When the men of Israel saw that they were in a

one word. strait, for the people were distressed, then the people Verse 22. Cease ye from man] 'Trust neither in did hide themselves in caves, and in thickets, and in him, nor in the gods that he has invented. Neither rocks, and in high places, and in pits,” 1 Sam. xii. 6, he, nor theý, can either save or destroy.

CHAPTER II.

The whole of this chapter, with the first verse of the nèxi, is a prophecy of those calamities that should be

occasioned by the Babylonish invasion and captivity. These calamities are represented as so great and so general, that even royal honours, in such a state, are so far from being desirable, that hardly any can be got to accept them, 1-7. This visitation is declared to be the consequence of their profanity and guilt ; for which the prophet farther reproves and threatens them, 8-15. Particular amplification of the distress of the delicate and luxurious daughters of Zion; whose deplorable situation is finely contrasted with

their former prosperity and ease, 16–26. B. C. ccr. 360. FOR,behold, the Lord, the Lord. stay of bread, and the whole A. M. cir

. 3244

. Anno Olymp. of hosts, a doth take away stay-of water;

Anno Olymp. Quintæ 1.

Quintæ I. Ante Urbem from Jerusalem and from Judah 2 • The mighty man, and the Conditam 7. o the stay and the staff, the whole man of war, the judge, and the

Conditam 7.

B. C.cir 760.

Ante Urbem

a Jer. xxxvii. 21 ; xxxviii. 9. Lev. xxvi. 26.

° See 2 Kings xxiv. 14 ; Psa. xxiv. 8; xxix. l.

mashen umashe משען ומשענה The IIebrew words'

NOTES ON CHAP. III.

and weak, the great and small.”—Chappelow, note on Verse 1. The stay and the staff—" Every stay and Hariri, Assembly I. Compare Eccles. ii. 8. support”) Hebrew," the support masculine, and the support feminine :" that is, every kind of support, nah come from the same root in shaan, to lean against, whether great or small, strong or weak. “ Al kanitz, to incline, to support; and here, being masculine and wal-kanitzah; the wild beasts, male and female. Pro- feminine, they may signify all things necessary for the verbially applied both to fishing and hunting : i. e., I support both of man and woman. My old MS. under. siezed the prey, great or little, good or bad. From stands the staff and stay as meaning particular persons, hence, as Schultens observes, is explained Isa. iii. 1, and translates the verse thus :-20 forsoth, the literally, the male and female stay : i. e., the strong | Zordschip Lord of Moostís schal don awer fro

( 3* )

34

d

quent orator.

The Babylonish

CHAP. II.

captivity foretold. 4. Mecor: 3244. prophet, and the prudent, and the against the ancient, and the base ; M. cir. 324 Anno Olymp. ancient..

against the honourable.

Anno Olymp. Quintæ I.

Quintæ I. Ante Urbem 3 The captain of fifty, and the 6 When a man shall take hold

Ante Urbem Conditam 7. honourable man, and the coun- of his brother of the house of his

Conditain 7. sellor, and the cunning artificer, and the e elo- father, saying, Thou hast clothing, be thou

our ruler, and let this ruin be under thy hand : 4 And I will give children to be their 7 In that day shall he & swear, saying, I will princes, and babes shall rule over them. mot be a h healer; for in my house is neither

5 And the people shall be oppressed, every bread nor clothing : make me not a ruler of one by another, and every one by his neigh- the people. bour : the child shall behave himself proudly 8 For Jerusalem i is ruined, and Judah is & Heb. a man eminent in countenance. e Or, skilful of speech. Heb. lift up the hand; Gen. xiv. 22. h Heb. binder up. 1 Eccles. x. 16.

i Mic. ii. 12. Jerusalem and fro Juda the stalworth and the The preceding and following verses show, that his stronge.

whole deportment, in regard to the prophet, was full The two following verses, 2, 3, are very clearly ex- of submission and humility." plained by the sacred historian's account of the event, And let this ruin be under thy hand—" And let thy the captivity of Jehoiachin by. Nebuchadnezzar king of hand support”] Before 77' nnn tachath yadecha, a Babylon : “ And he carried away all Jerusalem, and all MS. adds 7779 tihyeh, let it be ;” another MS. adds the princes, and all the mighty men of valour, even ten in the same place, 77').rpn takach beyadecha, which thousand captives, and all the craftsmen and smiths; none latter seems to be a various reading of the two preremained save the poorest sort of the people of the land,” ceding words, making a very good sense : “ Take into 2 Kings xxiv. 14. Which is supplied by our version. thy hand our ruinous state.” Twenty-one MSS. of

Verse 4 I will give children to be their princesKennicott's, thirteen of De Rossi's, one of my own, "I will make boys their princes") . This also was fully ancient, and three editions of the Babylonish Talmud accomplished in the succession of weak and wicked have 7'7 yadeycha, plural, “ thy hands." princes, from the death of Josial to the destruction of Verse 7. In that day shall he swearew. Then shall the city and temple, and the taking of Zedekiah, the he openly declare") The Septuagint, Syriac, and Jelast of ihem, by Nebuchadnezzar.

rome, read xD'i veyissa, adding the conjunction, which Babes shall rule over them.] Dimennysche men seems necessary in this place. sibul lordschipen to hem-Old MS. Bible.

I will not be a healer] Xam not a leche.- Old MS. Verse 6. Of the house of his father—" of his fa- Bible. Leech was the ancient English word for a ther's house") For n'a beilh, the house, the ancient physician. interpreters seem to have read nao mibbeith, from the For in my house is neither bread nor clothinghouse ; TOV OLKELOV TOV Tampoc avtov, Septuagint ; do- "For in my house is neither bread nor raiment”] “ It mesticum patris sui, Vulgate; which gives no good is customary through all the East," says Sir J. Chardin, sense. But the Septuagint MS. 1. D. 11. for OLKELOV “ to gather together an immense quantity of furniture has Olkov. And, his brother, of his father's house, is and-clothes ; for their fashions never alter.” Princes little better than a tautology. The case seems to re- and great men are obliged to have a great stock of quire that the man should apply to a person of some such things in readiness for presents upon all occasions. sort of rank and eminence; one that was the head of “ The kings of Persia," says the same author, “ have his father's house, (see Josh. xii. 14,) whether of the great wardrobes, where there are always many hunhouse of him who applies to him, or of any other; dreds of habits ready, designed for presents, and sort1'3X T'I 7X7 rosh beith abaiv, the chief, or head of ed," Harmer, Observ., II. 11 and 88.

A great quanhis father's house. I cannot help suspecting, there- tity of provision for the table was equally necessary. fore, that the word vx7 rosh, head, chief, has been lost The daily provision for Solomon's household, whose out of the text.

attendants were exceedingly numerous, was proportionSaying] Before now simlah, garment, two MSS., ably great, 1 Kings iv. 22, 23. . Even Nehemiah, in one ancient, and the Babylonish Talmud have the his strait circumstances, had a large supply daily for word 3x5 lemor, saying; and so the Septuagint, Vul- his table ; at which he received a hundred and fifty gate, Syriac, and Chaldee. I place it with Houbigant, of the Jews and rulers, besides those that came from alier 7700 simlah.

among the neighbouring heathen, Neh. v. 17, 18. Thou hast clothing~ "Take by the garment”] That This explains the meaning of the excuse made by is, shall entreat him in an humble and supplicating man- him that is desired to undertake the government. He

Ten men shall take hold of the skirt of him alleges that he has not wherewithal to support the digthat is a Jew,'saying, Let us go with you ; for we nity of the station, by such acts of liberality and hoshave heard that God is with you,” Zech. viii. 23. pitality as the law of custom required of persons of supeAnd so in Isa. iv. 1, the same gesture is used to ex- rior rank. . See Harmer's Observations, I. 340, II. 88. press earnest and humble entreaty. The behaviour of Verse 8. The eyes" The cloud”] This word apSaul towards Samuel was of the same kind, when he pears to be of very doubtful form, from the printed laid hold on the skirt of his raiment, 1 Sam. xv. 27. l editions, the MSS., and the ancient versions. The

Der.

Quintæ I. Ante Urbem Conditam 7.

Anno Olymp.

Quintæ I. Ante Urbem Conditam 7.

The desolate and ruined

ISAIAH.

state of the Jews. 4 M. cir

. 3244. fallen : because their tongue and with him : for the reward of his 4 Mi cir. 3284. Anno Olymp. their doings are against the hands shall be given him. Lord, to provoke the eyes

of his

12 As for my people, P children glory

are their oppressors, and women 9 The show of their countenance doth wit- rule over them. Omy people, ? they 'which ness against them; and they declare their sin lead thee cause thee to err, and destroy the as * Sodom, they hide it not. Wo unto their way of thy paths. soul! for they have rewarded evil unto them- 13. The LORD standeth up to plead, and selves.

standeth to judge the people. 10 Say ye to the righteous, 1 that it shall be 14 The Lord will enter into judgment with well with him : m' for they shall eat the fruit the ancients of his people, and the princes of their doings.

thereof: for ye have " eaten "up the vineyard ; 11 Wo unto the wicked ! nit shall be ill the spoil of the poor is in your houses.

k Gen. xiii. 13; xviii. 20, 21;. xix. 5. - Eccles. viii. 12. 9 Chap. ix. 16. — Or, they which call thee blessed.- - Heb. m Psa. cxxvii. 2.- in Psa. xi. 6; Eccles. viii. 13:- Lo Heb. swallow up.

Mic. vi. 2. Lu-Or, burnt. Chap. v. 7; done to him. - Ver. 4.

Matt. xxi, 33.

" that

first yod in 'j'y eyney, whieh is necessary according true reading máy be 11us ashsheru," bless you ;" or to the common interpretation, is in many of them omit-YUN 1998 imru ashrey, “ say ye, blessed is.” The ted; the two last letters are upon a rasure in two MSS. Vulgate and an ancient MS. read in the singular numI think it should be puy anan, “ a cloud,” as the Sy- ber, so yochel, comedat, " he shall eat." riac reads; and the allusion is to the cloud in which “ It shall be well with him ;-)10 ) ki tob, the glory of the Lord appeared above the tabernacle ; good.” Say nothing to such but good. He is a good see Exod. xvi. 9, 10; xl. 34–38; Num. xvi. 41, 42. man, he does nothing but good, and has a good God

Either of the readings gives a very good sense. to deal with, from whom he expects nothing but goodThe allusion may be to the cloud of the Divine pre- ness. It shall be well with such in all circumstances sence in the wilderness : or the eyes of the Lord may of life. 1. In prosperity. 2. In adversity. 3. In be meant, as they are in every place beholding the evil sickness. 4. In health. 5. 'In death. 6. In judgand the good. · And he cannot look upon iniquity but ment. And, 7. Through eternity. In every case, with abhorrence; therefore, the eyes of his glory might occurrence, and circumstance, he shall eat the fruit be well provoked by their crimes.

of his doings—he shall derive benefit from being a Verse 9. The show of their countenance] Bishop righteous man, and walking in a righteous way. Lowth has it the steadfastness of their countenance- Verse 11. Wo unto the wicked] yurlerasha, the they appear to be bent on iniquity, their eyes tell the man who is, 1. Evil in his heart. 2. Evil in his purwickedness of their hearts. The eye is the index of poses. 3. Evil in his life. As he is wicked, he does the mind. Envy, hatred, malice, malevolence, con- that which is wicked ; and is influenced by the wicked cupiscence, and murder, when in the heart, look most one, of whom he is the servant and the son. It shall intelligently out at the eye. · They tell the innocent be ill with him, yn ra; in a single word say tò him— to be on their guard ; and serve the same purpose as evil! Of him you can speak no good ; and to him the sonorous rings in the tail of the rattlesnake--they you can speak no good—all is evil, in himbefore announce the presence of the destroyer.

him-after him-round about him-above him-below They declare their sin as Sodom] Impure propen- him.' Evil in time--evil through eternity! sities are particularly legible in the eyes : whoever has The reward of his hands.) What he has deserved beheld the face of a debauchee or a prostitute knows he shall get. He shall be paid that for which he has this ; of these it may be said, they wish to appear what laboured, and his reward shall be in proportion to his they really are. They glory in their iniquity. This work. O, what a lot “is that of the wicked! Cursed is the highest pitch of ungodliness.

in time, and accursed through eternity! They have rewarded evil unto themselves.] Every Verse 12. Err—"Pervert") wha billeu, “swalman's sin is against his own soul. Evil awaiteth sin- low.” Among many unsatisfactory methods of acners—and he that offends his God injares himself. counting for the unusual meaning of this word in this

Verse 10. Say ye to the righteous) poiss letsaddik ; place, I choose Jarchis explication, as making the the 5 lamed is added here by one MS. and the Chal- best sense. “ Read isha billalu, .confound.' Sydee. The righteous is the person, 1. Who fears God. riac."—Dr. Judd. " Read isoa beholu, disturb or 2. Departs from evil. 3. Walks according to the tes- trouble." "-Secker. So Septuagint. timony of God. 4. And expects and prepares for a This verse might be read, “ The collectors of

grapes glorious -immortality.

shall be their oppressors; and usurers (noshim, instead “Pronounce ye.”—The reading of this verse is of nashim, women) shall rule over them.” very dubious. The Septuagint for 1738 imru tead Verse 13. The people—“ His people") isy ammo 70x3 neasor, or both, 10x3 1728 imru neasor, and Septuagint. 55 50 65 15 ki lo too lanu. Δησωμεν τον δικαιον, ότι Verse 14. - The vineyard.-" My vineyard"] '09 δυσχρηστος ημιν εστι. . Perhaps, for 1938 imru, the Icarmi, Septuagint, Chaldee, Jerome.

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