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The pride of the
Jewish-women. A. M. cir. 3244.
15 What mean ye that ye daughters of Zion are haughty, 4. M. cir. 3244. B. C. cir. 760. Anno Olymp. w beat my people to pieces, and and walk with stretched forth
Anno Olymp. Quintæ I.
Quintæ 1. Ante Urbem grind the faces of the poor? şaith necks and *wanton eyes, walkConditam 7. the Lord God of hosts. ing and y mincing as they go,
Conditam 7. 16 Moreover the LORD saith, Because the and making a tinkling with their feet : Chap. lviii. 4; Mic. iii. 2, 3.
* Heb. deceiving with their eyes.- -y Or, tripping nicely. Verse 15. And grind the faces] The expression and troublesome for a time, yet it comforteth the sight, and the image is strong, to denote grievous oppression; but repelleth ill humours.” Vis ejus (stibii) astringe ac is exceeded by the prophet Micah, chap. iii. 1-3 :- refrigerare, principalis autem circa oculos; namque
ideo etiam plerique Platyophthalmon id appellavere, “ Hear, I pray you, ye chiefs of Jacob, And ye princes of the house of Israel :
quoniam in calliblepharis mulierum dilatat oculos; et
fluxiones inhibet oculorum exulcerationesque. “ It Is it not yours to know what is right? Ye that hate good and love evil:
is astringent in its virtue, and refrigerant, and to be Who tear their skins from off them,
chiefly employed about the eyes, and it is called PlaAnd their flesh from off their bones ;
tyophthalmon, for being put into those ointments with Who devour the flesh of my people.;
which women beautify their eyes, it dilates them, reAnd Aay from off them their skin;
moves defluxions, and heals any ulcerations that may be And their bones they dash in pieces;
about the eyelids,"— Pliny, Nat. Hist. xxxiii. 6. And chop them asunder, as morsels for the pot : Ille supercilium madida fuligine tactum And as flesh thrown into the midst of the caldron.”
Obliqua producit acu, pingitque trementes
Juy, Sat. ii. 93. In the last line but one, for 280 keasher, read, by the transposition of a letter, 7xvkisher, with the
One his eyebrows, tinged with black soot, Septuagint and Chaldee.
Lengthens with an oblique bodkin, and paints, Verse 16. And wanton eyes" And falsely setting
Listing up his winking eyes. off their eyes with paint”] Hebrew, falsifying their
“ But none of those [Moorish] ladies,” says Dr. Shaw, eyes. I take this to be the true meaning and literal Travels, p. 294, fol.,,"lake theinselves to be completely rendering of the word ; from shakar. The Maso- dressed, till- they have tinged the hair and edges of retes have pointed it, as if it were from my sakar, a their eyelids with alkahol, the powder of lead ore. different word. This arose, as I imagine, from their This operation is performed by dipping first into the supposing that the word was the same with po sakar, powder a small wooden bodkin of the thickness of a Chaldee, “ intueri, innuere oculis ;" or that it had an quill; and then drawing it afterwards through the eyeaffinity with the noun apo sikra, which the Chal- lids, over the ball of the eye." Ezekiel, chap. xxiii
. deans, or the rabbins at least, use for stibium, the mine- | 40, uses the same word in the form of a verb, g'iyosna ral which was comn
mmonly used in colouring the eyes. cachalt eynayik, “thou didst dress thine eyes with alcaSee Jarchi's comment on the place. Though the hol;" which the Septuagint render cotißı(ou tous, omcolouring of the eyes with stibium be not particularly Dahuovs oov," thou didst dress thine eyes with stibium ;" here expressed, yet I suppose it to be implied; and so just as they do when the word 710 phuch is employed : the Chaldee paraphrase explains it; stibio linitis oculis, compare 2 Kings ix. 30; Jer. iv. 30. They sup" with eyes dressed with stibium." This fashion posed, therefore, that 710 phuch and. Sro cachal, or in. seems to have prevailed very generally among the the Arabic form, alcahol, meant the same thing; and Eastern people in ancient times; and they retain the probably the mineral used of old for this purpose was very same to this day,
the same that is used now; which Dr. Shaw (ibid. Pietro della Valle, giving a description of his wife, note) says is “a rich lead ore, pounded into an iman Assyrian lady born in Mesopotamia, and educated palpable powder.”. Alcoholados ; the word nipun at Bagdad, whom he married in that country, (Viaggi, meshakkeroth in this place is thus rendered in an old Tom. I., Lettera 17,) says, “Her eyelashes, which Spanish translation.— Sanctịús. See also Russell's are long, and, according to the custom of the East, Nat. Hist. of Aleppo, p. 102. dressed with stibium, (as we often read in the Holy The following inventory, as one may call it, of the Scriptures of the Hebrew women of old, Jer. iv: 30; wardrobe of a Hebrew lady, must, from its antiquity, Ezek. xxiii. 40; and in Xenophon, of Astyages the and the nature of the subject, have been very obscure grandfather of Cyrus, and of the Medes of that time, even to the most ancient interpreters which we have of Cyroped. lib. i.,) give a dark, and at the same time a it; and from its obscurity must have been also pecumajestic, shade to the eyes.” “Great eyes," says liarly liable to the mistakes of transcribers. However Sandys, Travels, p. 67, speaking of the Turkish women, it is rather matter of curiosity than of importance; and "they have in principal repute ; and of those the blacker is indeed, upon the whole, more intelligible and less they be the more amiable ; insomuch that they put corrupted than one might have reasonably expected. between the eyelids and the eye a certain black pow- Clemens Alerandrinus, Pædag. lib. ii., c. 12, and Juder, with a fine long pencil, made of a'mineral, brought lius Pollux, lib. vii., c. 22, have each of them preserved from the kingdom of Fez, and called Alcohole ; which from a comedy of Aristophanes, now lost, a similar by the not disagreeable staining of the lids doth better catalogue of the several parts of the dress and ornaset forth the whiteness of the eye; and though it be ments of a Grecian lady; which, though much more
The punishment of
the Jewish women. A. M. cir. 3244. 17 Therefore the LORD will 18 In that day the Lord will A. M. cir. 3244 B. C. cir. 760.
B. C. cir. 760. Anno Olymp. smite with ? a scab the crown of take away the bravery of their Anno Olymp · Quinta 1.
d round tires like the moon,
boris and ereringis ; 21. and ryugis and jemmys in
passage of the comedian with this of the prophet, and to ex- the frount hongynge ; 22. and chaunginge clothis, and amine the critic's learned labours upon it. Exercit. litil pallís, and scheetis, and prynys; 23. and scheweris, Plinian, p. 1148; or see Clem. Alex. as cited above, and necke kercheups, anð fyletís, aid roketis ; 24. and edit. Potter, where the passage, as corrected by Sal-ther schal be for swot smel, stynke, and for aprdil, a
lítil coord; and for críspber, ballidnesse ; and for masius, is given.
brest boond an heyr. Nich. Guel. Schroederus, professor of oriental languages in the University of Marpurg, has published a
Some of these things are hard to be understood, very learned and judicious treatise upon this passage though I think this version as good as that of the very of Isaiah. The title of it is,“ Commentarius Philolo- learned bishop.: but there is little doubt that articles of gico-Criticus de Vestitu Mulierum Hebræarum ad Iesai clothing and dress bore these names in the fourteenth iii. ver. 16–24. Lugd. Bat. 1745." 4to. As I think century. no one has handled this subject with so much judgment
Verse 17. The Lord will smite Will the Lord and ability as this author, I have for the most part fol- humble”] TanelVW.EL, Septuagint; and so Syriac and lowed him, in giving the explanation of the several Chaldee. . For nov sippach they read sov shaphal. terms denoting the different parts of dress, of which Instead of 7177* Yehovah,many MSS. have '378 Adonai. this passage consists ; signifying the reasons of my
dis- Will discover their secret parts" Expose their sent, where he does not give me full satisfaction.
nakedness"] It was the barbarous custom of the conBishop Lowth's translation of these verses is the querors of those times to strip their captives naked, and following :
to make them travel in that condition, exposed to the
inclemency of the weather; and, the worst of all, to the 18. In that day will the Lord take from them the
intolerable heat of the sun. · But this to the women
was the height of cruelty, and indignity; and especially
selves in all manner of delicacies of living, and all the 19. The pendants, and the bracelets, and the veils ; superfluities of ornamental dress; and even whose faces 20. The tires, and the fetters, and the zones,
had hardly ever been exposed to the sight of man. And the perfume-boxes, and the amulets;
This is always mentioned as the hardest part of the lot 21. The rings, and the jewels of the postrils ; 22. The embroidered robes, and the tunics,
of captives. Nahum, chap. iii. 5, 6, denouncing the And the cloaks, and the little purses,
fate of Nineveh, paints it in very strong colours :23. The transparent garments, and the fine linen “Behold, I am against thee, saith JEHOVAH, God of vests,
hosts : And the turbans, and the mantles,
And I will discover thy skirts upon thy face ; 24. And there shall be instead of perfume, a putrid And I will expose thy nakedness to the nations ; ulcer;
And to the kingdoms thy shame.
And I will throw ordures upon thee;
And I will make thee vile, and set thee as a gazing-
Verse 18. Ornaments about their feet-" The orThe daughters of Zion--walk] What is meant by naments of the feet rings”] The late learned Dr. Hunt, these several kinds of action and articles of dress can professor of Hebrew and Arabic in the University of not be well conjectured. How our ancestors understood Oxford, has very well explained the word day both verb them will appear from the following, which is the trans- and noun, in his very ingenious Dissertation on Prov. lation of these verses in my old MS. Bible :
vii. 22, 23. The verb means to skip, to bound, to 16. The dougöteris of Syon wenten with stright out dance along; and the noun, those ornaments of the necks, and in beckes (winking) of eegen, geeden and feet which the Eastern ladies wore; chains or rings,
The dress and ornaments
of the Jewish women. A. M. cir. 3244. 19 The chains, and the brace- 21 The rings, , and
A. M. cir. 3244. B. C. cir. 760.
B. C. cir. 760. Anno Olymp. lets, and the f mufflers,
Anno Olymp. Quintæ I.
Quintæ I. Ante Crbem 20 The bonnets, and the orna- 22 The changeable suits of Ante Urbem Conditam 7. ments of the legs, and the head- apparel, h and the mantles, and
Conditam 7. bands, and the tablets, and the ear-rings, the wimples, and the crisping-pins, e Or, sweet balls.-Or, spangled ornaments.
Heb. houses of the soul. Dan. iii. 21, in the margin. which made a tinkling sound as they moved nimbly in otto of roses, worn by the ladies of the East to the prewalking Eugene Roger, Description de la Terre sent time. Sainte, Liv. ii. ch. 2, speaking of the Arabian women, Vere 21. Nose-jewels—The jewels of the nostri)."] of the first rank in Palestine, says,—"Au lieu de 987 D7] nizmey haaph. Schroederús explains this, as brasselets elles ont de menottes d'argent, qu'elles por- many others do, of jewels, or strings of pearl hanging tent aux poignets et aux pieds ; où sont attachez quan- from the forehead, and reaching to the upper part of titè de petits annelets d'argent, qui font un cliquetis the nose ; than which nothing can be more ridiculous, comme d'une cymbale, lorsqu'elles cheminent ou se as such are seldom seen on an Asiatic face. But it mouvent quelque peu.” See Dr. Hunt's Dissertation; appears from many passages of Holy Scripture that where he produces other testimonies to the same pur- ' the phrase is to be literally and properly understood of pose from authors of travels. Hindoo women of ilt nose-jewels, rings set with jewels hanging from the fame wear loose ornaments one above another on their nostrils, as ear-rings from the ears, by holes bored to ankles, which at every motion make a tinkling poise. receive them. See WARD.,
Ezekiel, enumerating the common ornaments of And their cauts—“the net-works'] I am obliged to women of the first rank has not omitted this particular, differ from the learned Schroederus almost at first and is to be understood in the same manner, chap. xvi. setting out. He renders the word d'D'JV shebisim by 11, 12. See also Gen. xxiv, 47:soliculi, little ornaments, bullæ, or studs, in shape « And I decked thee with ornaments ; representing the sun, and so answering to the following And I put bracelets upon thine hands, word d'1110 saharonim, lunula, crescents." He sup- And a chain on thy neck : poses the word to be the same with Dv99 shemishim, And I put a jewel on thy nose, the : yod in the second syllable making the word And ear-rings on thine ears, diminutive, and the letter 3 mem being changed for 3 And a splendid crown upon thine head. beth, a letter of the same organ. How just and well founded his authorities for the transmutation of these there is a manifest allusion to this kind of ornament;
And in an elegant proverb of Solomon, Prov. xi. 22, letters in the Arabic language are, I cannot pretend which shows it to have been used in his time :to judge ; but as I know of no such instance in Hebrew; it seems to me a very forced etymology. Being dis
“As a jewel of gold in the snout of a swine; satisfied with this account of the matter, I applied to
So is a woman beautiful, but wanting discretion.” my good friend above mentioned, the late Dr. Hunt, This fashion, however strange it may appear to us, who very kindly returned the following answer to my was formerly and is still common in many parts of the inquiries :
East, among women of all ranks. Paul Lucas, speak* I have consulted the Arabic Lexicons, as well MS. ing of a village or clan of wandering people, a little as printed, but cannot find d'o'aw shebisim in any of on this side of the Eaphrates, says, (2d Voyage du them, nor any thing belonging to it; so that no help is Levánt, tom. i., art. 24,) “ The women, almost all of to be had from that language towards clearing up the them, travel on foot ; 'I saw none handsome among meaning of this difficult word. But what the Arabic them. They have almost all of them the nose bored ; denies, the Syriac perhaps may afford; in which I find and wear in it a great ring, which makes them still the verb vzv shabas, to entangle or interweave, an
more deformed.” But in regard to this custom, better etymology which is equally favourable to our marginal authority cannot be produced than that of Pietro della translation, net-works, with pov shabats, to make che Valle, in the account which he gives of the lady before quer work, or embroider, (the word by which-Kimchi. mentioned, Signora Maani Gioerida, his own wife. The and others have explained :) shabis ;) and has more- description of her dress, as to the ornamental parts of over this advantage over it, that the letters ♡ sin and it, with which he introduces the mention of this parO samech are very frequently put for each other, but y ticular, will give us some notion of the taste of the isaddi and D samech scarcely ever. Aben Ezra joins Eastern ladies for finery. “The ornaments of gold D'D'IV shelisim and d'iday achasim, which immediately and of jewels for the head, for the neck, for the arms, precedes it, together; and says that did shabis was for the legs, and for the feet (for they wear rings even the ornament of the legs, as dy eches was of the feet. on' their toes) are indeed, unlike those of the Turks, His words are,
so yovon Div carried to great excess, but not of great value : for in ”
Bagdad jewels of high price are either not to be had, Verse 20. The tablets] The words von una bottey or are not used; and they wear such only as are of hannephesh, which we translate tablets, and Bishop little value, as turquoises, small rubies, emeralds, carLowth, perfume bores, literally signify houses of the buncles, garnets, pearls, and the like.
My spouse soul ; and may refer to strong-scented bottles used for dresses herself with all of them according to their pleasure and against fainting ; similar to bottles with / fashion; with exception, however, of certain ugly rings
כמו עכס של שוקים
The punishment of the
pride of the Jewish women A. M. cir. 3244. B. C. cir. 760. 23 The glasses, i and the fine of a stomacher a girding of sack- 4. M. cit. 32.44.
. Anno Olymp. linen, and the hoods, and the cloth ; and buming instead of Anno Olymp. Quintæ l.
Quinta I. Ante Urbem veils.
Ante Crem Conditang 7.
Conditar 7. 24 And it shall come to pass, 25 Thy men shall fall by the that instead of sweet smell there shall be sword, and thy 'mighty in the war. stink : and instead of a girdle a rent; and in- 26 " And her gates shall lament and mourn; and stead of well-set hair * baldness; and instead she being desolate shall Psit upon the ground. Gen. xli. 42. Chap. xxi. 12; Mic. i. 16. Heb. mn Jer. xiv. 2 ;-Lam. i. 4. Or, emptied. - Heb. cleansed. muight.
pLam. ri. 10. of very large size, set with jewels, which, in truth, very looked upon as a mark of extreme effeminacy. See absurdly, it is the custom to wear fastened to one of Juvenal, Sat. ii., 65, &c. Publius Syrus, who lived their nostrils, like buffaloes : an ancient custom, how- when the fashion was first introduced, has given a huever, in the East, which, as we find in the Holy Scrip-morous satirical description of it in two lines, which tures, prevailed among the Hebrew ladies even in the by chance have been preserved :time of Solomon, Prov. xi. 22. These nose-rings, in “ Æquum est, induere nuptam ventum textilem ? complaisance to me, she has left off ; but I have not Palam prostare nudam in nebula linea ?” yet been able to prevail with her cousin and her sisters
Verse 24. Instead of sweet smell—" perfume.") A to do the same ; so fond are they of an old custom, be principal part of the delicacy of the Asiatic ladies con it ever so absurd, who have been long habituated to it.” | sists in the use of baths, and of the richest oils and Viaggi, Tom. i., Let. 17.
perfumes; an attention to which is in some degree ne. It is the left nostril that is bored and ornamented cessary in those hot countries. Frequent mention is with rings and jewels. More than one hundred draw- made of the rich ointments of the spouse in the Song ings from life of Eastern ladies lie now before me, and of Solomon, Cant. iv. 10, 11, scarcely one without the nose-jewel : both the arms
“ How beautiful are thy breasts, my sister, my spouse! and wrists are covered with bracelets, arm-circles, &c.,
How much more excellent than wine ; as also their legs and feet; the soles of their feet and
And the odour of thine ointments than all perfumes ! palms of their hands coloured beautifully red with hen
Thy lips drop as the honey-comb, my spouse ! na, and their hair plaited and ornamented superbly.
Honey and milk are under thy tongue : These beautiful drawings are a fine comment on this
And the odour of thy garments is as the odour of chapter.
Lebanon," Verse 23. The glasses] The conjunction 1 vau, and--AND the glasses, is added here by forty-three of
The preparation for Esther's being introduced to Kennicott's and thirty-four of De Rossi's MSS., and King Ahasuerus was a course of bathing and perfuming one of my own, ancient, as well as by many editions. for a whole year; “six months with oil of myrrh, and
Verse 23. And the veils.-—" The transparent gar- six months with sweet odours ;” Esth. ii. 12. See ments.") Ta dlabavn Aakwika, Sept. A kind of the notes on this place. A diseased and loathsome silken dress, transparent, like gauze ; worn only by the habit of body, instead of a beautiful skin, softened and most elegant women, and such as dressed themselves made agreeable with all that art could devise, and all elegantius quam necesse esset probis, "more elegantly that nature, so prodigal in those countries of the richest than modest women should.” Such garments are worn perfumes, could supply, must have been a punishment to the present day; garments that not only show the the most severe and the most mortifying to the delicacy shape of every part of the body, but the very colour of these haughty daughters of Sion. of the skin. This is evidently the case in somne scores Burning instead of beauty—“A sunburnt skin.") of drawings of Asiatic females now before me. This Gaspar Sanctius ihinks the words in 'I ki thachath sort of garments was afterwards in use among the an interpolation, because the Vulgate has omitted them. Greeks. Prodicus, in his celebrated fable (Xenoph. The clause sinnn's ki thachath yophi seems to me Memorab. Socr. lib. ii.) exhibits the personage of Sloth rather to be imperfect at the end. Not to mention that in this dress : EoOnta de, ez is av janota úpa dia-3 ki, taken as a noun for adustio, burning, is without λαμποι :
example, and very improbable. The passage ends “ Her robe betray'd
abruptly, and seems to want a fuller, conclusion.
In agreement with which opinion, of the defect of Through the clear texture every tender limb,
the Hebrew text in this place, the Septuagint, accordHeight'ning the charms it only seem'd to shade ;
ing to MSS. Pachom. and 1 D. ii., and Marchal., which And as it flow'd adown so loose and thin, Her stature show'd more tall, more snowy white her dent marks of imperfection at the end of the sentence ;
are of the best authority, express it with the same eviskin."
thus : ταυτα σοι αντι καλλωπισμου- The two latter They were called multitia and coa (scil. vestimenta) by add dov. This chasm in the text, from the loss prothe Romans, from their being invented, or rather intro- bably of three or four words, seems therefore to be of duced into Greece, by one Pamphila of the island of long standing. Cos.' This, like other Grecian fashions, was received Taking 3 ki in its usual sense, as a particle, and at Rome, when luxury began to prevail under the em- supplying 75 lech from the col of the Septuagint, it might perors. It was sometimes worn even by the men, but possibly have been originally somewhat in this form :
Desolate state of
the land of Judea.
תהיה לך רעת מראה
כי תחת , יפי
mans might have an eye on the customs of the Jewish marah raath lech thihyeh yophi thachath ki
nation, as well as those of their country, in the several
marks of sorrow they have set on this figure. The “ Yea, instead of beauty thou shalt have an ill-fa- psalmist describes the Jews lamenting their captivity voured countenance.”
in the same pensive posture : 'By the waters of D'inn 'ki thachalh yophi, (q. nn' yachath,) “ for Babylon we sat down and wept, when we remembered beauty shall be destroyed.” Syr. non chathath or one thee, O Zion. But what is more remarkable, we nachalh.-Dr. DURELL.
find Judea represented as a woman in sorrow sitting “May it not 'be no cohey, wrinkles instead of on the ground, in a passage of the prophet, that fure beauty ? as from 79' yaphah is formed 'D' yephi, yophi; tells the very captivity recorded on this medal.” Mı. from 1772 marah, 'o meri, &c.; so from 7103 cahah, to Addison, I presume, refers to this place of Isaiah ; and be wrinkled, 72 cohey.”—Dr. Jubb.. The 3 ki is therefore must have understood it as foretelling the wanting in one MS., and has been omitted by several destruction of Jerusalem and the Jewish nation by the of the ancients.
Romans : whereas it seems plainly to relate, in its first Verse 25. Thy mighty men.) For 9871 gebura- and more- immediate view at least, to the destrụction thech an ancient MS. has 7733 gibborech. The true of the city by Nebuchadnezzar, and the dissolution of reading, from the Septuagint, Vulgale, Syriac, and the Jewish state under the captivity at Babylon.-L. Chaldee, seems to be 7.7100 gibborayich.
Several of the coins mentioned here by Mr. Addison Verse 26. Sit upon the ground.) Sitting on the are in my own collection : and to such I have already ground was a posture that denoted mourning and deep referred in this work. I shall describe one here. On distress. The prophet Jeremiah (Lam. ii. 8) has given the obverse a fine head of the emperor Vespasian with it the first place among many indications of sorrow, in this legend, Imperator Julius Cæsar Vespasianus Authe following elegant description of the same state of guslus, Pontifex Marimus, Tribunitia Polestate Pater distress of his country :
Palriæ, Consul VIII. “ The elders of the daughter of Sion sit on the of Palestine, the emperor standing on the left, close
On the reverse a tall palm tree, emblem of the land ground, they are silent : They have cast up dust on their heads; they have Judea under the figure of a female captive sitting on
to the tree, with a trophy behind him; on the right, girded themselves with sackcloth ; The virgins of Jerusalem have bowed down their elbow on her knee, weeping. Around is this legend,
the ground, with her head resting on her hand, the heads to the ground.”
Judea Capta. Senatus Consulto. However this pre“We find Judea,” says Mr. Addison, (on Medals, diction may refer proximately to the destruction of Dial. ii,) " on several coins of Vespasian and Titus, in Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, I am fully of opinion a posture that denotes sorrow and captivity. I need that it ultimately refers to the final ruin of the Jewish not mention her sitting on the ground, because we state by the Romans. And so it has been understood have already spoken of the aptness of such a posture by the general run of the best and most learned interto represent an extreme affliction. I fancy the Ro- preters and critics.
ing chapter, are represented as so terribly great that seven women should be left to one man, 1. Great
ND · in that day seven women only c let us be called by thy 4. M. cir. 3244. Anno Olymp. shall take hold of one man, name,
to take away
our re- Anno Olymp. Quintæ I.
Quintæ 1. Ante Urbem saying, We will beat our own proach.
Conditam 7. bread, and wear our own apparel : 2. In that day shall f the branch
A. M. cir. 3244.
Chap. ii. 11, 17.02 Thess. ii. 12. Heb. let thy name + Or, take thou away.
be called upon us.
ne Luke i. 25. Jer. xxiii. 5; Zech.
iii. 8; vi. 12.
NOTES ON CHAP. IV.
shall become suitors to the men : they will take hold Verse 1. And seven women] The division of the of them, and use the most pressing importunity to be chapters has interrupted the prophet's discourse, and married, In spite of the natural suggestions of jeabroken it off almost in the midst of the sentence. lousy, they will be content with a share only of the “ The numbers slain in battle shall be so great, that rights of marriage in common with several others ; seven women shall be left to one man." The prophet and that on hard conditions, renouncing the legal dehas described the greatness of this distress by images mands of the wife on the husband, (see Exod. xxi. 10,) and adjuncts the most expressive and forcible. The and begging only the name and credit of wedlock, and young women, contrary to their natural modesty, I to be freed from the reproach of celibacy. See chap.