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above.

The presence of God in

ISAIAH.

the assemblies of his people. 4. M. cir. 3244,- of the Lord be o beautiful and midst thereof by the spirit of A. Mc.cir. 3244. Anno Olymp. glorious, and the fruit of the earth judgment, and by the spirit of Anno Olymp. Quintæ 1.

Quintæ I. Ante Urbem shall be excellent and comely "for burning.

Ante Urbem Conditam 7, them that are escaped of Israel. 5. And the Lord will create upon

Conditam 7. 3 And it shall come to pass that he that every dwelling place of Mount Zion, and is left in Zion, and he that remaineth in upon her assemblies, * a cloud and smoke by Jerusalem, shall be called holy, even every day, and the shining of a flaming fire by night: one that is k written ' among the living in.for p upon all the glory, shall be 4 a defence. Jerusalem.

6 And there shall be a tabernacle for a sha4 When m the Lord shall have wąshed away dow in the day-time from the heat, and · for the filth of the daughters of Zion, and shall a place of refuge, and for a covert from storm have purged the blood of Jerusalem from the and from rain.

& Heb. beauty and glory. h Heb. for the escaping of Israel. In Mal. jii. 2, 3. -n Exod. xiii. 21.- Zech. ii. 5. <p Or i Chap. IX. 21. wk Phil. iv. 3; Rev. iii. 5.

LI Ór, to life.

Heb. a covering , chap. vii: 14: Chap. xxv. 4. liv. 4, 5. Like Marcia, on a different occasion, and in separate the dross from the silver, the bad from the other circumstances :

good. The severity of God's judgments, the fiery Da tantum nomen inane

trial of his servants, Ezekiel (chap. xxii. 18-22) has Connubii : liceat tumulo scripsisse, Catonis.

set forth at large, after his manner, with great boldness Marcia.

LUCAN, ii. 342.

of imagery and force of expression. God threatens

to gather them into the midst of Jerusalem, as into the “ This happened,” says Kimchi, 1. in the days of furnace; to blow the fire upon them, and to melt them. Ahaz, when Pekah the son of Remaliah slew in Judea Malachi, chap. iii. 2, 3, treats the same subject, and one hundred and twenty thousand men in one day ; see represents the same event, under the like images : 2 Chron. xviii. 6. The widows which were left were

“But who may abide the day of his coming ? so numerous that the prophet said, “They are multi

And who shall stand when he appeareth ? plied beyond the sand of the sea,'" Jer. xv. 8.

For he is like the fire of the-refiner, In that day) These words are omitted in the Sep

And like the soap of the fullers. tuagint, and MSS.

And he shall sit refining and purifying the silver; Verse 2. The branch of the Lord—" the branch of

And he shall purify the sons of Levi; JEHOVAH”] The Messiah of JEHOVAH, says the Chal

And cleanse them like gold, and like silver ; dee. And Kimchi says, The Messiah, the Son of

That they may be Jeħovah's ministers, David. The branch is an appropriate title of the

Presenting unto him an offering in righteousness." Messiah ; and the fruit of the land means the great Person to spring from the house of Judah, and is only This is an allusion to a chemist purifying metals. a parallel expression signifying the same; or perhaps He first judges of the state of the ore or adulterated the blessings consequent upon the redemption pro- metal. Secondly, he kindles the proper degree of fire, cured by him. Compare chap. xlv. 8, where the and applies the requisite test; and thus separates the same great event is set forth under simnilar images, precious from the vile. and see the note there.

Verse 5. And the Lord will create-One MS., the Them that are escaped of Israel—" the escaped of Septuagint, and the Arabic, have x'3' yabi, He shall the house of Israel."] A MS. has 5x70" ni beith bring : the cloud already exists; the Lord will bring yisrael, the house of Israel.

it over.

This is a blessed promise of the presence of Verse 3. Written among the living] That is, God in all the assemblies of his people. whose name stands in the enrolment or register of the Every dwelling place—“the station'] The Hepeople ; or every man living, who is a citizen of Jeru- brew text has, every station : but four MSS. (one ansalem. See Ezek. xiii. 9, where, “they shall not be cient) omit ha.col, all ; very rightly, as it should seem : written in the writing of the house of Israel," is the for the station was Mount Zion itself, and no other. same with what immediatelġ goes before, " they shall See Exod. xv. 17. And the Septuagint, Arabic, and not be in the assembly of my people.” Compare Psa. MSS., add the same word col, before miklxix. 28; 1xxxvii. 6; Exod. xxxii. 32. To number raeha, probably right : the word has only changed its and register the people was agreeable to the law of place by mistake. Timpa mikrayeh, “the place Moses, and probably was always practised; being, in where they were gathered together in their holy assound policy, useful, and even necessary. David's semblies," says Sal ben Melech. But twenty-five of design of numbering the people was of another kind; Kennicott's MSS., and twenty-two of De Rossi's, it was to enrol them for his army. Michaelis Mo-fifty-three editions, besides the Septuagint, Syriac, saisches Recht, Part. iii., p. 227. See also his Dis- and Arabic, have the word in the plural number. sert. de Censibus Hebræorum.

A cloud and smoke by day] This is a manifest Verse 4. The spirit of burning] Means the fire of allusion to the pillar of a cloud and of fire, which atGod's wrath, by which he will prove and purify his tended the Israelites in their passage out of Egypt, people ; gathering them into his furnace, in order to and to the glory that rested on the tabernacle, Exod.

מקראה

The parable of

CHAP. V.

the vineyard. xiii. 21, xl. 38. The prophet Zechariah, chap ii. 5, 1 For

upon all the glory shall be a defence.) Whatapplies the same image to the same purpose :- ever God creates, he must uphold, or it will fail. Every “ And I will be unto her a wall of fire round about; maintain itself in the soul.

degree of grace brings with it a degree of power to And a glory will I be in the midst of her."

Vere 6. A tabernacle] In countries subject to vioThat is, the visible presence of God shall protect lent tempests, as well as to intolerable heat, a portable her. Which explains the conclusion of this verse of tent is a necessary part of a traveller's baggage, for Isaiah; where the makkaph between ha col, and 713) defence and shelter. And to such tents the words of cabod, connecting the two words in construction, which the text make evident allusion. They are to be met ought not to be connected, has thrown an obscurity with in every part of Arabia and Egypt, and in various upon the sentence, and misled most of the translators.

other places in the East.

CHAPTER V. This chapter begins with representing, in a beautiful parable, the tender care of God for his people, and their .

unworthy returns for his goodness, 1-7. The parable or allegory is then dropped ; and the prophet, in plain terms, reproves and threatens them for their wickedness; particularly for their covetousness, 8–10 ; intemperance, 11 ; and inattention to the warnings of Providence, 12. Then follows an enumeration of judgments as the necessary consequence. Captivity and famine appear with all their horrors, 13. Hades, or the grave, like a ravenous monster, opens wide its jaws, and swallows down its myriads,-14. Distress lays hold on all ranks, 15; and God is glorified in the execution of his judgments, 16 ; till the whole place is left desolate, a place for the flocks to range in, 17. The prophet then pauses ; and again resumes his subject, reproving them for several other sins, and threatening them wilh woes and vengeance, '18–24 ; after which he sums up the whole of his awful denunciation in a very lofty and spirited epiphonema or conclusion, The God of armies, having hitherto corrected to.no purpose, is représented with iniinitable majesty, as only giving a hist, and a swarm of nations hasten to his standard, 25–27. Upon a guilty race, unpilied by heaven or by earth, they execute their commission, and leave the land desolate and dark, without one

ray of comfort to cheer the horrid gloom, 28–30. A. M. cir. 3241.

NOW will I sing to my wellB, C. cir. 760.

2 And he fenced it, and gath- A.M. cir. 3244. Anno Olymp, beloved a song of my beloved ered out the stones thereof, and Anno Olymp Quintæ I.

Quintæ I. Ante Urbem touching a his vineyard. My well- planted it with the choicest vine, Ante Urbem Conditam 7.

Conditam 7. beloved hath a vineyard in ba and built a tower in the midst of very fruitful hill.

it, and also a made a wine press therein : e and - Psa. Lxxx. 8; Cant. viii. 12 ; chap. xxvii. 2 ;-Jér. ii. 21; Matt. Heb. the horn of the son of oil,- c Or, made a wall about it. xxi. 33; Mark xii. 1; Luke xx. 9.

Heb, hewed. Deut. xxxii. 6; chap. i. 2, 3. This chapter likewise stands single and alone, un- dodi, 0717 77'u shirath dodim is the same with connected with the preceding or following. The sub- n9999 yg shir yedidoth, Psa. xlv. 1. In this way of ject of it is nearly the same with that of the first understanding it we avoid the great impropriety of chapter. It is a general reproof of the Jews for their making the author of the song, and the person to wickedness; but it exceeds that chapter in force, in whom it is addressed, to be the same. severity, in variety, and elegance; and it adds a more In a very fruitful hill—"On a high and fruitful express declaration of vengeance by the Babylonian hill."! Heb. ipv iz 177 bekeren ben shamen, “ on a invasion.

horn the son of oil. The expression is highly deNOTES ON CHAP. V.

scriptive and poetical. “ He calls the land of Israel

a horn, because it is higher than all lands; as the horn Verse 1. Now will I sing to my well-beloved a song is higher than the whole body; and the son of oil, of my beloved—“Let me sing now a song,” &c.]: A because it is said to be a land flowing with milk and MS., respectable for its antiquity, adds the word n'v honey.”—Kimchi on the place. The parts of anishir, a song, after x3 na; which gives so elegant a mals are, by an easy metaphor, applied to parts of the turn to the sentence by the repetition of it in the next earth, both in common and poetical language. member, and by distinguishing the members so exactly montory is called a cape or head; the Turks call it a in the style and manner in the Hebrew poetical com- nose. “Dorsum immane mari summo;" Virgil, a back, position, that I am much inclined to think it genuine. or ridge of rocks :-** A song of my beloved—A song of loves”]

“Hanc latus angustum jam se cogentis in arctum dodey, for 0'717 dodım ; slalus constructus pro abso

Hesperiæ tenuem producit in æquora linguam, luto, as the grammarians say, as Mic. vi. 16; Lam. iii.

Adriacas flexis claudit quæ cornibus undas." 14, 66 ; so Archbishop Secker.. Or rather, in all these and the like cases, a mistake of the transcribers, by Lucan, ii. 612, of Brundusium, i. e., Bpevteclov, not observing a small stroke, which in many MSS., is which, in the ancient language of that country, signifies made to supply the o mem, of the plural, thus, /1799 1 stag's head, says Strabo. A horn is a proper and ob

A pro

דודי

The parable of

ISAIAH.

the vineyard. A M. cir. 3244. he looked that it should bring Jerusalem, and men of Judah, A M. cir. 3244

B. C. Anno Olymp. forth grapes, and it brought forth. judge, I pray you, betwixt me Anno Olymp. Quintæ I.

Quintæ 1. Ante Urbem

and my vineyard.

Ante Urbem Conditam 7.

Conditam 7. 3 And now, O inhabitants of 4 What could have been done

wild grapes:

1 Romans, chap. iii. 4. vious image for a mountain or mountainous country. seems that the upper part of the valley of Sorek, and Solinus, cap. viii., says, “Italiam, ubi longius proces that of Eshcol, where the spies gathered the single serit, in cornua duo scindi ;” that is, the high ridge of cluster of grapes, which they were obliged to bear bethe Alps, which runs through the whole length of it, tween two upon a staff, being both near to Hebron, divides at last into two ridges, one going through Ca- were in the same neighbourhood, and that all this part labria, the other through the country of the. Brutii. of the country abounded with rich vineyards. Compare “ Cornwall is called by the inhabitants in the British Num. xiii. 22, 23; Judg. xvi. 3, 4.

P. Nau supposes tongue Kernaw, as lessening by degrees like a horn, Eschol and Sorek to be only different names for the running out into promontories like so many horns. For saine valley. Voyage Noveau de la Terre Sainte, lib. the Britons call a horn corn, in the plural kern.”- iv., chap. 18. See likewise De Lisle's posthumous Camden. “And Sammes is of opinion, that the coun- map of the Holy Land. Paris, 1763. See Bochart, try had this name originally from the Phænicians, who Hieroz. ii., col. 725. Thevenot, i. p. 406. Michaelis traded hither for tin ; -keren, in their language, being (note on Judg. xvi. 4, German translation) thinks it a horn."--Gibson.

probable, from some circumstances of the history there Here the precise idea seems to be that of a high given, that Sorek was in the tribe of Judah, not in the mountain standing by itself; “ vertex montis, aut pars country of the Philistines. montis ab aliis divisa ;" which signification, says I. H. The vine of Sorek was known to the Israelites, Michaelis, Bibl. Hallens., Not. in loc., the word has being mentioned by Moses, Gen. xlix. 11, before their in Arabic.

coming out of Egypt. Egypt was not a wine counJudea was in general a mountainous country, whence try. Throughout this country there are no wines ;" Moses sometimes calls it The Mountain, “ Thou shalt Sandys, p. 101. At least in very ancient times they plant them in the mountain of thine inheritance ;" had none. Herodotus, ii. 77, says it had no vines, Exod. xv. 17. “ I pray thee, let me go over, and see and therefore used an artificial wine made of barley. the good land beyond Jordan ; that goodly mountain, That is not strictly true, for the vines of Egypt are and Lebanon ;" Deut. iii. 25. And in a political and spoken of in Scripture, Psa. Ixxviii. 47; cv. 33 ; and religious view it was detached and separated from all see Gen. xl. 11, by which it should seem that they the nations round it. Whoever has considered the de- drank only the fresh juice pressed from the grape, scriptions given of Mount Tabor, (see Reland, Palæs- which was called ovog aute hivos; Herodot., ii. 37. tin. ; Eugene Roger, Terre Sainte, p. 64,) and the But they had no large vineyards, nor was the country views of it which are to be seen in books of travels, proper for them, being little more than one large plain, (Muundrell, p. 114; Egmont and Heyman, vol. ii. p. annually overflowed by the Nile. The Mareotic in 25; Thevenot, vol. i., p. 429,) its regular conic form later times is, I think, the only celebrated Egyptian rising singly in a plain to a great height, from a base wine which we meet with in history. The vine was small in proportion, and its beauty and fertility to the formerly, as Hasselquist tells us it is now, “ cultivated very top, will have a good idea of “ a horn the son of in Egypt for the sake of eating the grapes, not for oil," and will perhaps be, induced to think that the wine, which is brought from Candia,” &c. “They prophet took his image from that mountain.

were supplied with wine from Greece, and likewise Verse 2. And gathered out the stones--" And he from Phænicia;” Herodot. iii. 6. The vine and the cleared it from the stones”) This was agreeable to the wine of Sorek therefore, which lay near at hand for husbandry : “Saxa, summa parte terre, et vites et importation into Egypt, must in all probability have arbores lædunt ; ima parte refrigerant;" Columell. de been well known to the Israelites, when they sojourned arb. iii. “ Saxosum facile est expedire lectione lapi- there. There is something remarkable in the manner dum;" Id. ii. 2. “ Lapides, qui supersunt, [al. insuper in which Moses, Gen. xlix. 11, makes mention of it, sunt,] hieme rigent, æstate fervescunt; idcirco satis, which, for want of considering this matter, has not arbustis, et vitibus nocent;” Pallad. i. 6. A piece of been attended to; it is in Jacob's prophecy of the ground thus cleared of the stones Persius, in his hard future prosperity of the tribe of Judah :way of metaphor, calls "exossatus ager," an unboned

“ Binding his foal to the vine, field ; Sat. vi. 52. The choicest vine—“Sorek”) Many of the ancient

And his ass's colt to his own sorek;

He washeth his raiment in wine, interpreters, the Septuagint, Aquila, and Theod., have retained this word as a proper name: I think very

And his cloak in the blood of grapes." rightly. Sorek was a valley lying between Ascalon I take the liberty of rendering now sorekah, for and Gaza, and running far up eastward in the tribe of 1928 soreko, his sorek, as the Masoretes do by pointJudah. Both Ascalon and Gaza were anciently fa- | ing any iroh, for iry iro, his foal. Y ir, mighrt namous for wine; the former is mentioned as such by turally enough appear in the feminine form ; but it is Alexander Trallianus; the latter by several authors, not at all probable that pw sorek ever should. By quoted by Reland, Palæst., p. 589 and 986. And it | naming particularly the vine of Sorek, and as the vine The parable of

CHAP. V..

the vineyard. A M. cir. 3214. more to my 5 yineyard, that I

5 And now go to; I will tell 4. M. cir. 3244.

B. C. cir. 760. Anno Olymp. have not done in it? wherefore, you what I will do to my

Anno Olymp. Quintæ I.

Quintæ l. Ante Urbem

when I looked that it should bring vineyard : hI will take away Ante Urbem Conditam 7.

Conditam 7. forth grapes, brought it forth wild the hedge thereof, and it shall grapes ?

be eaten · up;' and break down i the wall & Luke xiii. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10.

h Psa. lxxx. 12. - Larn. ii. 8. belonging to Judah, the prophecy intimates the very in cella, vel intimæ domus camera quadam a ventorum part of the country which was to fall to the lot of ingressu remota. Kempfer, of Shiras wine. Amæn. that tribe. Sir John Chardin says, " that at Cas- Erot. p. 376. For 'the wind, to which that country bin, a city of Persia, they turn their cattle into the is subject, would injure the wine. “ The wine-presses vineyards after the vintage, to browse on the vines.” in Persia,” says Sir John Chardin, “. are formed by He speaks also of vines in that country so large that making hollow places in the ground, lined with mahe could hardly compass the trunks of them with his sons' work.” Harmer's Observations, i., p. 392. See arms. Voyages, tom. iii., p. 12, 12mo. This a print of one in Kempfer, p. 377. Nonnus describes shows that the ass might be securely bound to the vine, at large Bacchus hollowing the inside of a rock, and and without danger of damaging the tree by browsing hewing out a place for the wine-press, or rather the on it.

lake : And built a lower in the midst of il] Our Saviour,

Και σκοπελους ελαχηνε: πεδoσκαφεος δε σιδηρου who has taken the general idea of one of his parables,

θηγαλεη γλωχινι μυχον κοιληνατο πετρης Matt. xxi. 33, Mark xii. 1, from this of Isaiah, has

Λειηνας δε μετωπα βαθυνομενων κενεωνων likewise inserted this circumstance of building a tower;

Αφρον [f. ακρον] εύστραφυλοιο τυπον ποιησατο ληνου. which is generally explained by commentators as de

DIONYSIAC. lib. xii., 1. 331. signed for the keeper of the vineyard to watch and defend the fruits. But for this purpose it was usual to

“He pierced the rock; and with the sharpen'd tool make a little temporary hút, (Isa. i. 8,) which might

Of steel well-temper'd scoop'd its inmost depth : serve for the short season while the fruit was ripening,

Then smooth'd the front, and form'd the dark recess and which was removed afterwards. The tower there- In just dimensions for the foaming lake.” fore should rather mean a building of a more perma- And he looked—“ And he expected"] Jeremiah, nent nature and use ; the farm, as we may call it, of chap. ii. 21, uses the same image, and applies it to the vineyard, containing all the offices and implements, the same purpose, in an elegant paraphrase of this and the whole apparatus necessary for the culture of part of Isaiah's parable, in his flowing and plaintive the vineyard, and the making of the wine. To which manner :image in the allegory, the situation, the manner of

“But I planted thee a sorék, a scion perfectly genuine : building, the use, and the whole service of the temple,

How then art thou changed, and become to me the exactly answered. And so the Chaldee paraphrast very rightly expounds it : Et statui eos (Israelitas) ut

degenerate shoots of the strange vine !" plantam vineæ selectæ et ædificavi Sanctuarium meum Wild grapes" poisonous berries.”] Divx3 beuin medio illorum. “And I have appointed the Israel- shim, not merely useless, unprofitable grapes, such as ites as a plant of a chosen vine, and I have built my wild grapes; but grapes offensive to the smell, noxious, sanctuary in the midst of them.” So also Hieron. in poisonous. By the force and intent of the allegory, to loc. Ædificavit quoque turrim in medio ejus ; tem- good grapes ought to be opposed fruit of a dangerous plum videlicet in media civitate. “He built also a and pernicious quality; as, in the explication of it, to tower in the midst of it, viz., his own temple in the judgment is opposed tyranny, and to righteousness, imdst of the city.” That they have still such towers oppression. foi gephen, the vine, is a common name or or buildings for use or pleasure, in their gardens in the genus, including several species under it; and Moses, East, see Harmer's Observations, ii. p. 241.

to distinguish the true vine, or that from which wine is And also made a wine-press therein." And hewed made, from the rest, calls it, Num. vi., 4, qu'ng you gephen out a lake therein.") . This image also our Saviour haiyayin, the wine-vine. Some of the other sorts were has preserved in his parable. P'yekeb; the Septua- of a poisonous quality, as appears from the story regint render it here apol.qulov, and in four other places lated among the miraculous acts of Elisha, 2 Kings iv. ý o2.nylov, Isa. xvi. 10 ; Joel iii. 13;. Hag. ii. 17; 39-41. “And one went out into the field to gather Zech. xiv. 10, I think more properly; and this latter potherbs; and he found a field vine, and he gathered word St. Mark uses. It means not the wine-press from it wild fruit, his lapful; and he went and shred itself, or calcalorium, which is called na gath, or 17719 them into the pot of pottage, for they knew them not, purah; but what the Romans called lacus, the lake; And they poured it out for the men to eat : and it came the large open place or vessel, which by a conduit or to pass, as they were eating of the pottage, that they spout received the must from the wine-press. In cried out and said, There is death in the pot, O man very hot countries it was perhaps necessary, or at of God; and they could not eat of it. And he said, least very convenient, to have the lake under ground, Bring meal, (leg. inp kechu, nine MSS., one edition,) or in a cave hewed out of the side of the rock, for cool and he threw it into the pot. And he said, Pour out ness, that the heat might not cause too great a fer- for the people, that they may eat. And there was mentation, and sour the must. Vini confectio instituitur nothing hurtful in the pot.”

B. C. cir. 760.

The prophet reproves the

ISAIAH.

people for their wickedness. A. M. cir. 3244. thereof, and it shall be * trodden 9 p In a mine ears, said the A. M. cir. 3244.

B. C. Anno Olymp. down.

LORD of hosts, Of a truth

many

Anno Olymp Quintæ I.

Quinta 1 Ante Urbem 6 And I will lay. it waste : it houses shall be desolate, even Ante Urben Conditam 7.

Conditam 7. shall not be pruned nor digged; great and fair, without inhabibut there shall come up briers and thorns : tant. I will also command the clouds that they 10 Yea, ten acres of vineyard shall yield rain no rain upon it.

-one s bath, and the seed of a homer shall yield 7 For the vineyard of the Lord of hosts is an ephah. the house of Israel, and the men of Judah 11 Wo unto them that rise up early in the ? his pleasant plant : and he looked for judg- morning, that they may follow strong drink; ment, but behold m oppression; for righteous- that continue until night, till wine " inflame ness, but behold a cry.

them! 8 Wo unto them that join." house to house, 12 And the harp, and the viol, the tabret, that lay field to field, till there be no place, and pipe, and wine, are in their feasts : but that they may be placed alone in the midst w they regard not the work of the LORD, of the earth!

neither consider the operation of his hands.

a scab.

* Heb. for a trading. - Heb. plant of his pleasures

„mn Heb. Heb. If not, &c. - See Ezek. xlv. 11. - Prov. xi. un Mic. ii. 2. - Heb. ye. ---p Ch. xxii. 14.-1 Or, 29, 30; Eccles. x. 16 ; ver. 22. Or, pursue them.- Amos This is in mine ears, saith the LORD, &c.

vi. 5, 6. -w Job xxxiv, 27; Psa. xxvi. 5.

From some such sorts of poisonous fruits of the xiii. 6, xxiv. 17, xxxii. 7, xxviii. 1, lvii. 6, lxi. 3, Ixv. grape kind Moses has taken these strong and highly 11, 12. Rabbi David Kimchi has noticed the paropoetical images, with which he has set forth the future nomasia here : he expected vovo mishpat, judgment, corruption and extreme degeneracy of the Israelites, but behold navn mishpach, oppression ; he expected in an allegory which has a near relation, both in its np73 tsedakah, righteousness, but behold pyx tseakaḥ, subject and imagery, to this of Isaiah : Deut. xxxii, a'cry. The rabbins esteem it a great beauty; their 32, 33.

term for it is preba ning tsachoth hallashon, elegance “Their vine is from the vine of Sodom,

of language. And from the fields of Gomorrah :

Oppression-"tyranny.") NoVD 'mishpach, from Their grapes are grapes of gall;

nov shaphach, servum fecit, Arab. Houbigant : ONDU Their clusters are bitter :

shiphchah is serva, a handmaid, or female slave. NDDD Their wine is the poison of dragons,

mispach, eighteen MSS. And the cruel venom of aspics."

Verse 8. Wo unto them thatlay field to field

“You who lay field unto field”) Read 13'p takribu, “ I am inclined to believe,” says Hasselquist," that in the second person; to answer to the verb following. the prophet here, Isa. v. 2–4, means the hoary night- So Vulgate. shade, solanum incanum; because it is common in Verse 9. In mine ears.-" To mine ear") The Egypt, Palestine, and the East; and the Arabian name sentence in the Hebrew text seems to be imperfect in agrees well with it. The Arabs call it anab el dib, this place; as likewise in chap. xxii. 14, where the i. e., wolf grapes. The Divibeushim, says Rab. very same sense seems to be required as here. See Chai., is a well known species of the vine, and the the note there ; and compare 1 Sam. ix. 15. In this worst of all sorts. The prophet could not have found place the Septuagint supply the word nkovod), and the a plant more opposite to the vine than this; for it grows Syriac yonux eshtama, auditus est Jehovah in auribus much in the vineyards, and is very pernicious to them; meis, i. e., obaj niglah, as in chap. xxii. 14. wherefore they root it out : it likewise resembles a vine Many houses] This has reference to what was by its shrubby stalk ;”. Travels, p. 289. See also Mi- said in the preceding verse : “In vain are ye so intent chaelis, Questions aux Voyageurs Danois, No. 64. upon joining house to house, and field to field ; your

Verse 3. Inhabitants] 'V' yoshebey, in the plural houses shall be left uninhabited, and your fields shall · number; three MSS., (twe ancient,) and so likewise become desolate and barren ; so that a vineyard of ten the Septuagint and Vulgate.

acres shall produce but one bath (not eight gallons) of Verse 6. There shall come up briers and thorns—wine, and the husbandman shall reap but a tenth part “The thorn shall spring up in it'] One MS. has ova of the seed which he has sown.” Kimchi says this beshamir. The true reading seems to be 730 13 bo means such an extent of vineyard as would require ten shamir, which is confirmed by the Septuagint, Syriac, yoke of oxen to plough in one day. and Vulgale.

Verse 11. Wo unto them that rise up early] There Verse 7. And he looked for judgment] The paro- is a likeness between this and the following passage nomasia, or play on the words, in this place, is very of the prophet Amos, chap. vi. 3-6, who probably remarkable; mishpat, mishpach, tsedakah, tseakah. wrote before Isaiah. If the latter be the copier, he There are many examples of it in the other prophets, seems hardly to have equalled the elegance of the but Isaiah seems peculiarly fond of it. See chap. original :

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