Memorie della Classe di scienze morali, storiche e filologiche

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La Classe, 1877 - 5 sayfa
 

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Sayfa 479 - According to the system of natural liberty, the sovereign has only three duties to attend to ; three duties of great importance, indeed, but plain and intelligible to common understandings : first, the duty of protecting the society from the violence and invasion of other independent societies; secondly, the duty of protecting, as far as possible, every member of the society from the injustice or oppression of every other member of it, or the duty of establishing an exact administration of justice;...
Sayfa 479 - ... first, the duty of protecting the society from the violence and invasion of other independent societies; secondly, the duty of protecting, as far as possible, every member of the society from the injustice or oppression of every other member of it, or the duty of establishing an exact administration of justice; and, thirdly, the duty of erecting and maintaining certain public works and certain public institutions, which it can never be for the interest of any individual, or small number of individuals,...
Sayfa 481 - ... to do or to abstain from. This is the authoritative interference of government. There is another kind of intervention which is not authoritative: when a government, instead of issuing a command and enforcing it by penalties, adopts the course so seldom resorted to by governments, and of which snch important use might be made, that of giving advice, and promulgating information; or when, leaving individuals free to use their own means of pursuing any object of general interest...
Sayfa 479 - All systems either of preference or of restraint, therefore, being thus completely taken away, the obvious and simple system of natural liberty establishes itself of its own accord. Every man, as long as he does not violate the laws of justice, is left perfectly free to pursue his own interest his own way, and to bring both his industry and capital into competition with those of any other man, or order of men.
Sayfa 480 - For this purpose, there must be a specification of the functions which are either inseparable from the idea of a government, or are exercised habitually and without objection by all governments ; as distinguished from those respecting which it has been considered questionable whether governments should exercise them or not.
Sayfa 480 - By the term optional it is not meant to imply that it can ever be a matter of indifference, or of arbitrary choice, whether the government should or should not take upon itself the functions in question ; but only that the expediency of its exercising them does not amount to necessity."32 According to Mill, "authoritative" forms of optional state functions "require a much stronger necessity to justify.
Sayfa 427 - Iuliano curante gladiatorium munus Neronis principis. Qui et commercia ea et litora peragravit, tanta copia invecta, ut retia coercendis feris podium protegentia sucinis nodarentur...
Sayfa 496 - Ganzen der Inbegriff derjenigen allgemeinen Bestimmungen des Handelns, durch welche es geschieht, dass das sittliche Ganze und seine Gliederung sich erhalten und weiter bilden kann.
Sayfa 479 - N'eût-ce pas été un beau et solennel spectacle que le Pouvoir né de la révolution de Février se fût adressé ainsi aux citoyens : « Vous m'avez investi de la Force publique. Je ne l'emploierai qu'aux choses dans lesquelles l'intervention de la Force soit permise; or, il n'en est qu'une seule, c'est la Justice. Je forcerai chacun à rester dans la limite de ses droits. Que chacun de vous travaille en liberté le jour et dorme en paix la nuit. Je prends à ma charge la sécurité des personnes...
Sayfa 481 - We must set out by distinguishing between two kinds of intervention by the government, which, though they may relate to the same subject, differ widely in their nature and effects, and require, for their justification, motives of a very different degree of urgency. The intervention may extend to controlling the free agency of individuals. Government may interdict all persons from doing certain things ; or from doing them without its authorization ; or may prescribe to them certain things to be done,...

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