An Essay on the Principle of Population
Cosimo, Inc., 1 Oca 2013 - 324 sayfa
Around 1796, Mr. Malthus, an English gentleman, had finished reading a book that confidently predicted human life would continue to grow richer, more comfortable and more secure, and that nothing could stop the march of progress. He discussed this theme with his son, Thomas, and Thomas ardently disagreed with both his father and the book he had been reading, along with the entire idea of unending human progress. Mr. Malthus suggested that he write down his objections so that they could discuss them point-by-point. Not long after, Thomas returned with a rather long essay. His father was so impressed that he urged his son to have it published. And so, in 1798, appeared An Essay on Population, by British political economist and demographer THOMAS ROBERT MALTHUS (1766-1834). Though it was attacked at the time and ridiculed for many years afterward, it has remained one of the most influential works in the English language on the general checks and balances of the world's population and its necessary control. This is a replica of the 1826 sixth edition. Volume 1 includes: Book I: "Of the Checks to the Population in the Less Civilised Parts of the World and in Past Times" and Book II: "Of the Checks to the Population in the Different States of Modern Europe."
Kullanıcılar ne diyor? - Eleştiri yazın
Her zamanki yerlerde hiçbir eleştiri bulamadık.
Diğer baskılar - Tümünü görüntüle
according agriculture allowed America annual appear average calculated causes chapter checks to population China circumstances classes common compared consequence considerable considered continued correct course cultivation custom deaths diminished double effect emigration encourage ending enumeration equal estimated Europe evident excess expected extreme famine five France frequent give given greater habits half healthiness human improvement increase industry inhabitants islands Italy kind known labour land late laws less live lower males manner marriages marry means means of subsistence mentioned mortality nature nearly necessarily necessary observed occasioned operate parish particularly perhaps period persons plague population present prevail principal probably produce prolificness proportion of births rapid reason registers remain respect result returns savage says seems society sufficient supply suppose taken tion torn towns tribes villages Voyage whole women
Sayfa 19 - Population invariably increases where the means of subsistence increase, unless prevented by some very powerful and obvious checks. 3. These checks, and the checks which repress the superior power of population, and keep its effects on a level with the means of subsistence, are all resolvable into moral restraint, vice, and misery.
Sayfa 6 - Through the animal and vegetable kingdoms Nature has scattered the seeds of life abroad with the most profuse and liberal hand; but has been comparatively sparing in the room and the nourishment necessary to rear them, The germs of existence contained in this earth, if they could freely develop themselves, would fill millions of worlds in the course of a few thousand years.
Sayfa 6 - But as, by that law of our nature which makes food necessary to the life of man, population can never actually increase beyond the lowest nourishment capable of supporting it, a strong check on population, from the difficulty of acquiring food, must be constantly in operation.
Sayfa 5 - I allude, is the constant tendency in all animated life to increase beyond the nourishment prepared for it.
Sayfa 17 - It very rarely happens that the nominal price of labour universally falls; but we well know that it frequently remains the same while the nominal price of provisions has been gradually rising. This, indeed, will generally be the case if the increase of manufactures and commerce be sufficient to employ the new labourers that are thrown into the market, and to prevent the increased supply from lowering the money-price.
Sayfa 11 - ... the human species would increase as the numbers 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, and subsistence as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. In two centuries the population would be to the means of subsistence as 256 to 9; in three centuries as 4096 to 13, and in two thousand years the difference would be almost incalculable.
Sayfa 16 - ... turn up fresh soil, and to manure and improve more completely what is already in tillage...
Sayfa 7 - Consequently in no state that we have yet known, has the power of population been left to exert itself with perfect freedom. Whether the law of marriage be instituted or not, the dictate of nature and virtue seems to be an early attachment to one woman...