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ance,—in the necessity of a holy and religious life, --in the resurrection of the dead, and in a future state of rewards and punishments; and I believe that, in every nation, he that feareth God and worketh righteousness, is accepted with him.”

For that description of Arianism which is most recent, see the Correspondence between Dr. Price and Dr. Priestley; Dr. Price's Sermons ; Ben Mordecai's Letters, which are the grand text-book of Modern Arians; and Mr. Benjamin Carpenter's Lectures on the Works of Creation, and the Doctrines of Revelation, 2 vols. 8vo.

WORSHIP.-The first Arians were accused of idolatry, for worshipping him whom they accounted a creature; and the more modern Arians, in order to evade this accusation, have framed a distinction between supreme and inferior worship;* but this, like the Roman Catholic distinction of Latreia and Doulia, does not appear to others to have any foundation in Scripture.t

Whiston, Clarke, Emlyn, Chandler, Benson, Pierce, and Grove, in short, all the most eminent Arians, whether churchmen or dissenters, have been worshippers of Christ; but we are now told, that, “since the publications of Dr. Price,” the Arians “seem to have abandoned the worship of Jesus Christ, notwithstanding they still continue to believe that he is the Maker, Supporter, and Go

* See Emlyn's Vindication of the Worship of Christ. † See Rom. i. 25.; Gal. iv. 8., &c.

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vernor of the world, and the immediate dispenser of all things pertaining both to life and godliness.

But though Dr. Clarke continued to join in the worship of the Church of England, and even to take an active part in it, he thought he saw the necesšity of reforming her liturgy; and accordingly, a short time before his death, he himself made and proposed some striking alterations, chiefly in the devotional parts, and with respect to the object of worship

All those passages, in which the Son and the Holy Ghost are called God, or divine worship ascribed to either of them, he took the liberty of striking out, or of changing them so as to direct the worship to God the Father. The title prefixed to this work, which I believe was never published, but may be seen in the British Museum, where it was lodged by his son, Mr. Clarke, was, Amendments, humbly proposed to the Consideration of those in Authority, of the Book of Common Prayer, &c. I am not aware that the Common Prayer, with these alterations, has been used in any congregation of Arians; but it, or something on the same plan, seems to be loudly, called for by Arians and Unitarians, both in and out of the church; and it forms the ground-work of the liturgy used since 1774 in the Unitarian Chapel, Essex Street, Strand.*

* Mr. Belsham's Letters upon Arianism, &c. p. 31. 79. Though, among other things, he (Dr. Price) differed from me with respect to the person of Christ, no man laid more stress than he did on his being a creature of God, equally with ourselves, and no more an "object of worship than any other creature whatever."-Dr. PRIESTLEY'S Discourse on the Death of Dr. Price, p. 25.

Mr. B. Carpenter, in 1793, published, for the use of his congregation at Stourbridge, A Liturgy, containing forms of Devotion for each Sunday in the Month, with an Office for Baptism, &c.; which, he says, was “chiefly compiled from the SACRED SCRIPTURES, the Book of Common Prayer, and other liturgies.” Whatever may be the practice in other Arian congregations, it appears, from the excellent address prefixed to this compilation, that a liturgy of any sort was then a novelty in Mr. Carpenter's congregation, although its members had adopted the practice of standing whilst they sing the praises of God, of kneeling whilst they join in the prayers which are offered up,“ of public instead of private baptism, and of having the Lord's Supper administered every month.”—Mr. Carpenter's object in drawing up this liturgy, seems to have been very comprehensive, for he wished to render it “unexceptionable to Christians of all persuasions!” Of course, it retains but little resemblance of the Book of Commor Prayer. In his advertisement, also prefixed to it, Mr. Carpenter remarks, that, “as we haye no divine precept” for addressing prayer to

* A list of what Dr. Clarke conceived to be the exceptionable parts, with respect to the object of worship, may be seen in Mr. Lindsey's Apology for resigning the Vicarage of Catteric, Yorkshire, p. 185., &c.; or in the same author's Conversations on Christian Idolatry, p. 136., &c.


Christ,* “ I think it right, in our public worship, to pray to the Father only, in the name of Christ. But, as praise is certainly ascribed to him in the Scriptures, and as love to Christ is made an essential branch of his religion, I cannot but think we are justified in addressing him with hymns of praise and thanksgiving.”

Accordingly, hymns of praise are here addressed to the Redeemer at the celebration of the Lord's Supper, &c.

In the beginning of the litany, which is here transferred from the morning to the afternoon service, the joint invocation of the three persons of the Trinity is left out, and the second and third invocations, or addresses, are to the Father, and are thus expressed –“Through the intercession of thy wellbeloved Son, our Redeemer, have mercy upon us miserable sinners.”—“By the direction and assistance of thy Holy Spirit, have mercy,” &c.

Besides the Office for Baptism, mentioned in the title page, there is one for the Lord's Supper, and

another for the Burial of the Dead.

The child is baptised “ into the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit;" and in the administration of the Lord's Supper, I do not find any thing that can be called a prayer of Consecration, of Oblation, or of Invocation.t

* See below, p. 165.

† See the Liturgy itself, 12mo, sold by J. West, Stourbridge; T. Pearson, Birmingham; and R. Baldwin, Paternoster-Row.

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PRESENT STATE, AUTHORS AND WORKS FOR AND AGAINST, &c.- Compared with what Arianism has been, what we now hear of it is but a faint echo, and daily growing fainter and fainter; most of those who now set out with Arianism, seem not satisfied with it, but, with the great Mr. Chillingworth, slide down the precipice into Socinianism below. “ The Arian opinions,” says an author who was himself a professed Arian, and who, as such, has a peculiar claim to our confidence on this point,“ are at present upon the decline, many Unitarian Christians tending fast to the doctrine of Socinus."*

“There are only three stages of declension from Christianity into Deism; Mr. Whiston shewed himself very ready for the second, when he dared to charge the Scriptures of God with weakness and with absurdity. Mr. Chillingworth had finished two of them, when he died; and was ready, I fear, for the third. Chubb too, whose name was former

. ly of some notoriety in the lists of infidel fame, but is nearly lost and forgotten in the crowds

the rolls at present, was first an Arian, then a Socinian, and finally a Deist. Morgan also, another phantom of unbelief, that once stalked about formida


* Dr. Kippis, in the New Biog. Brit. Vol. III. p. 623. The Doctor himself is said to have become a Socinian long before his death. Dr. Priestley also acknowledges, that “ it is very common, at this day, for persons to pass from Athanasianism to Arianism, and then from Arianism to proper Unitarianism.”-History of Early Opinions, &c. Vol. IV. p. 235, 236.

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