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cessity of the aid of divine grace, and other fundamental doctrines of Christianity, appear to have fallen far below the standard of the Gospel. So comprehensive is it said to have become, that Christians of all sects and denominations, whatever their sentiments and opinions may be, Papists excepted, may be formed, according to it, into one religious body, and live together in brotherly love and concord. Many who do not belong to the Church of England, and not a few of those who are within her pale, both Clergy and Laity, seem to believe, and warmly contend, on the other hand, that her doctrinal articles and confessional, are strictly Calvinistic: and on this subject, the dispute perhaps never ran higher than it has done of late years. *

The members of the Episcopal Church in Scotlandthe Moravians the General Baptists--the Wesleian Methodists-the Quakers, &c. are Arminians; and it is generally supposed that a great proportion of the Clergy of the Kirk of Scotland teach the Arminian doctrines, although their Confession of Faith is strictly Calvinistic.

Some of the other eminent men and writers among the Arminians, besides those already mentioned, are Vorstius, Grotius, Le Clerk, Cattenburgh, Brandt, Wetstein, Laud, J. Goodwin, and Taylor, not to mention many others of more modern date, as Tillotson, Warburton, Law, &c. &c.

* See the art. United Church of England and Ireland, below.

" It is certain,” says Dr. M‘Laine “ that the most eminent philosophers have been found, generally speaking, among the Arminians. If both Calvinists and Arminians claim a King, it is certain that the latter alone can boast of a Newton, a Locke, a Clarke, and a Boyle."'*

The great Archbishop Usher is said to have lived a Calvinist, and died an Arminian. Dr. Whitby also, the celebrated commentator, who was originally a Calvinist, has written a large and elaborate defence of Arminianism; and the reader should consult Dr. Taylor's (of Norwich,) Key to the Epistle to the Romans, which has been much admired on this subject, though, in other respects, it is by no means without its faults. Nor ought Mr. Wesley to be forgotten here, whose labours are well known, and who was a zealous advocate for the tenets of Arminius; see in particular his Arminian Magazine.

Some of the principal writers on the other side have been—Dr. Owen in his Display of Arminianism and on Particular Redemption ;-Dr. Gill in his Cause of God and Truth;—Dr. Edwards On the Will, and on Original Sin ;-Polwhele in his

* Note (ee) to Mosheim's Eccles. Hist. vol. v. p. 464, 5.

An accurate account of the foreign Arminian writers is given by Adrian Van Cattenburgh, in his Bibl. Scriptorum Remonstrantium, 8vo. Amstel. 1728 ; and for some account of their Confessions of Faith, and the historical writers, who have treated of this sect, vide Jo. Christ. Koecheri Biblioth. Theol. Symbolicæ, p. 481.

book On the Decrees ;-John Edwards in his Veritas Redux ;-Cole in his Sovereignty of God; and Toplady in almost all his works.

Miscellaneous REMARKS.—The points in dispute between the Arminians and Calvinists have seldom failed to be more or less warmly contested, from the beginning of the 17th century to the present day; nor does the happy period seem yet to be near at hand, when divines shall no longer differ respecting them. Till then, conscious of the weakness of their own understandings, and sensible of the bias which the strongest minds are apt to receive from thinking long in the same track, they ought to differ with charity and meekness, and to pay due regard to the favourite precept of their Lord and Master.

The sacred cause of truth can never be promoted by angry controversy or railing accusation. It should be vindicated, not only by sound and temperate discussion, but also and especially, by the manifestation of its sanctifying and transforming power over the life and conversation; and by evincing, that the like “mind is in us which was in Christ Jesus our Lord.”

ANTINOMIANISM,

AND

ANTINOMIANS.

NAMES.~The Antinomians derive their name from two Greek words, evri, signifying against, and vous, a law; their favourite tenet being, that the law is not a rule of life to believers under the Gospel. But it is not easy to ascertain what they mean by this position, and indeed their very name is ambiguous; it is not so descriptive and confined as Quaker, but rather more vague, like lawless.

They are also sometimes called Solifidians, a term compounded of two Latin words solus, alone, and fides, faith, because they seem to carry the doctrine of faith without works, to such lengths as to separate practical holiness from christian faith, and injure, if not wholly destroy, every obligation to moral obedience.

Rise, PROGRESS, HISTORY, &c.- The Solifidian, or Antinomian heresy, which asserts, that nothing is required in man's salvation but faith in Christ, and which took its rise from a misunderstanding and perversion of some passages of St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans, was one of the first that disturbed the Christian Church, insomuch that St. Augustín says,* that not only the Epistle of St. James, but likewise those of St. Peter, St. John, and St. Jude, were written to guard the faith. ful against its pernicious influences.—And so many have been the heresies since the Apostolic age, in the composition of which this opinion has been a prime ingredient, that there perhaps has never yet been a time wherein the state of the Christian Church was such as not to require her ministers to urge the doctrine of St. James, that faith without works is dead, or to warn their people against turning the grace of God into lasciviousness.

Modern Antinomianism may be traced to the period of the Reformation. Its founder was John Agricola, a Saxon divine, a cotemporary, a countryman, and at first a disciple of Luther.--He was of a restless temper, and wrote against Melancthon; and having obtained a professorship at Wittemberg, he first taught Antinomianism there, about the year 1535. The Papists, in their disputes with the Protestants of that day, carried the merit of good works to an extravagant length; and this induced some of their opponents, as is too often the case, to run into the opposite ex

* De Fide et Operibus, cap. 14.

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