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north; and on the Continent Presbyterianism still prevails, in Switzerland and in Holland.—Presbyterians are also numerous in most parts of North América. Their's is the prevailing religion throughout Connecticut, where it is said to reign“ in all its rigour, despotism, and intolerance."* Although the letter of the law has established freedom of religious sentiments in Connecticut, such freedom is far from being known there. Its ministers, the zeal of its followers, and the appropriation of the places in the College to Presbyterians exclusively, afford very great advantages, to prevent it from being supplanted by any other form of religion. The Presbyterians are also the most numerous sect in North Carolina, especially in the western parts, which are inhabited by emigrants from Pennsyl

vania,

It is said that there were in America, in the year 1788, about 618 Presbyterian congregations, and 226 ministers; and their General Assembly usually meets at Philadelphia in the month of May.t Calvin, Martyr, Beza, Bullinger, Zanchius, Blondel, Salmasius, Dallæus, Claude, &c. may be considered as among the chief luminaries of the foreign Presbyterian Churches; and at home none perhaps have been more eminent than Kñox, Henry, M.Knight, Robertson, Campbell, and Blair.

* Duke de la Rochefoucault Liancourt's Travels, v. 1.

+ {The churches and ministers of Connecticut are Congregational, and not Presbyterian. The Presbyterian ministers in the United States, are (in 1817) about 600 in number.]

To the works already referred to in favour of Presbyterianism may be added, David Blondel's Apologia pro Sententia Hieronymi, which is a magazine for the writers against Episcopacy, and was drawn up at the request of the Westminster Assembly, particularly the Scots. * See also Samuel Rutherford's Divine Right of Presbyteries, and his Divine Right of Church Government; together with Petrus Molinæus De Munere Pastorali.

On the other side, in addition to the authors referred to under the articles Episcopacy, and United Church of England and Ireland, may be mentioned: -Bishop Beveridge in his Annotations upon the Apostolic Canons ;—Hooker in the 7th book of his Eccles. Polity ;-Bingham, Leslie, and John Jacques in his Ordination by mere Presbyters void and null. 1707.

MisceLLANEOUS REMARKS.-It is a principle in almost all Presbyterian Churches, never to administer the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper in private houses to any person, under any circumstances whatsoevernt But surely the Presbyterians have not adopted this principle from Calvin, who thus expresses himself on the subject:“Why the Lord's Supper should not be denied to the sick, many and great reasons prevail with

* See its odd conclusion in Mr. Jones's Life of Bishop Horne, p. 246.

+ See Leslie's Rehearsals, No. 399.

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me,-&c. &c. My judgment for the administration of private baptism, and giving the Lord's Supper to malefactors that desire it, and appear qualified for it, is the same."* He likewise required sponsors in baptism, besides or together with the father;t whereas now almost all Presbyterians, both at home and abroad, who practise infant baptism, require no sponsors, but the father, and in some cases the mother; and they seldom administer baptism in private houses.

See Mr. Calder's Miscellany Numbers; (fol. 1713;) Relating to the Controversies about the Book of Common Prayer, Episcopal Government, the Power of the Church, in ordaining Rites and Ceremonies, &c. defended by Scripture, Reason, Antiquity, and the sentiments of the Learn'dest Reformers, particularly Mr. John Calvin. In this work various other particulars are produced, respecting which the sentiments of Calvin seem to correspond more with those of the Episcopalians than of the modern Presbyterians.

* Calv. Epist. 321,4-363; and Epist. 185, ad Monsbel.

+ Calv. Epist. 285; and to Knox, Epist. 302. So also Beza, Epist. 8.

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INDEPENDENCY,

AND

INDEPENDENTS.

Names. The Independents, formerly a distinct sect, but now comprehending the members of various denominations, as far as respects Church Government and Discipline, are so called from their maintaining, that all Christian congregations are so many Independent Religious Societies ;or, that each congregation of Christians which meets in one house, for public worship, is a complete Church;-has sufficient power to perform every thing relating to ecclesiastical government within itself;—and, is in no respect subject or accountable to other churches.

This name of Independents, those who embraced these sentiments either assumed or approved; but when, about the middle of the 17th century, a great variety of sects in England sheltered themselves under the cover of it, and even seditious subjects, that aimeai nothing less than the death of their Sovereign, and the destruction of the government, employed it as a mask to hide their deformity, “then the true and genuine Independents renounced this title, and substituted another less odious in its place, calling themselves Congregational Brethren, and their religious assemblies Congregational Churches ;" * names perhaps more appropriate, and by these they are still frequently known.

Their brethren in America also with some exceptions, now disclaim the word Independent as applicable to them, and claim a sisterly relation to each other. The ministers of the Congregational Order are there generally associated for the purposes of licensing candidates for the ministry, and friendly intercourse and improvement.

Rise, PROGRESS,&c.—The sectof the Independents was originally formed in Holland, about the year 1610, but their distinguishing doctrine seems to have been previously maintained by the Brown

* Mosheim's Eccles. Hist. vol. v. p. 405. Note. Robinson, the founder of the sect, makes express use of the term Independent in explaining his doctrine relating to Ecclesiastical Government;" Cætum quemlibet particularem esse totam, integram, et perfectam ecclesiam ex suis partibus constantem, immediatè et Independenter (quoad alias ecclesias) sub ipso Christo."- Apologia, cap. 5. p. 22. Dr. Mosheim supposes it may possibly have been from this passage that the title of Independents was originally derived.

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