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to blush before the other Angels, and refrain from an exposure of the head, not to be made even to the eyes of men.

These and many other similar declarations prove that the Christian Fathers believed in the actual existence and power of the polytheistic Deities, as fully as any of their worshippers had ever done; the only difference was that one regarded their influence as malignant, and the other as beneficent. The Bishop of Nyssa, in his Life of Gregory Thaumaturgus, relates the following story: Once, when Gregory was on a journey, he was obliged to take shelter for the night in one of the temples famous for oracles and divination, where the Demons were accustomed to appear visibly to the priests. Gregory, by invoking the name of Jesus, and making the sign of the cross, expelled them, and purified the place; so that when the priest came in the morning, to perform the customary rites, he could obtain none of the usual signs of their presence. At last, they informed him that they had been driven out the night before, by a stranger, and had not power to return. The priest offered expiatory sacrifices, but it was all in vain. Upon this, he pursued Gregory in great wrath, and overtaking him on the road, made use of violent threats. Gregory told him he possessed a power superior to Demons, and that he could drive them out whenever he pleased. The priest begged him to give proof of this power, by causing them to appear again in the temple. He consented ; and wrote on a scrap of papyrus: “Gregory to Satan : enter!" As soon as the priest laid these words on the altar, the Demons made their appearance; and this miracle converted him to Christianity.

It was a common opinion with the Fathers that every magician had an attendant Evil Spirit, who came when summoned, obeyed his commands, and taught him ceremonies, and forms of words, by which he was enabled to do supernatural things. In this way, they were accustomed to account for miracles performed by Gentiles and heretics. They also state that Jews could cast out devils,

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These subdued mankind to their power; partly by magical writings, partly by terrors and punishments, and partly by the institution of sacrifices, fumes, and libations, of which they soon began to stand in need, after, they had enslaved themselves to their lusts and passions.” Again he says: " The truth shall come out. Evil Demons of old debauched women, corrupted boys, and spread terrors among men, who did not examine things by reason. Seized with fear, and not knowing they were Evil Spirits, they called them Gods, and gave each one the name he had taken to himself. When Socrates endeavoured to expose their practices, and by true reason draw men away from their worship, the Demons, by the help of wicked men, caused him to be put to death, as an atheist, and an impious person."

Clement of Alexandria declares that the love of the Angels for women transported them so far beyond all prudence, that they revealed to them many secrets, which they ought to have kept concealed. The knowledge of alchemy and magic was supposed to have been obtained in this

way. Some maintained that all ideas of a Supreme Being, and the immortality of the soul, except those revealed to Hebrews and Christians, came from conversation with these fallen Angels. Tertullian traced rouge, powder for the eye-lashes, bracelets, necklaces, and other ornaments of women's dress, to the researches of their celestial lovers into the hidden mysteries of nature, to find whatever might adorn the objects of their passion. He supposed Paul's injunction to women to wear veils had reference to the fatal effects their beauty once had on the Spirits above. He therefore strongly urges upon young women the duty of covering their heads. In the course of an elaborate argument upon this subject he says: “We read that Angels fell from God and heaven, because they lusted after women. Therefore, faces so dangerous that heaven itself may be scandalized by them, ought to be shaded. When in the presence of God, before whom they have been guilty of the extermination of Angels, they ought to blush before the other Angels, and refrain from an exposure of the head, not to be made even to the eyes of men."

These and many other similar declarations prove that the Christian Fathers believed in the actual existence and power of the polytheistic Deities, as fully as any of their worshippers had ever done; the only difference was that one regarded their influence as malignant, and the other as beneficent. The Bishop of Nyssa, in his Life of Gregory Thaumaturgus, relates the following story : Once, when Gregory was on a journey, he was obliged to take shelter for the night in one of the temples famous for oracles and divination, where the Demons were accustomed to appear visibly to the priests. Gregory, by invoking the name of Jesus, and making the sign of the cross, expelled them, and purified the place; so that when the priest came in the morning, to perform the customary rites, he could obtain none of the usual signs of their presence. At last, they informed him that they had been driven out the night before, by a stranger, and had not power to return. The priest offered expiatory sacrifices, but it was all in vain. Upon this, he pursued Gregory in great wrath, and overtaking him on the road, made use of violent threats. Gregory told him he possessed a power superior to Demons, and that he could drive them out whenever he pleased. The priest begged him to give proof of this power, by causing them to appear again in the temple. He consented ; and wrote on a scrap of papyrus: "Gregory to Satan : enter!" As soon as the priest laid these words on the altar, the Demons made their appearance; and this miracle converted him to Christianity.

It was a common opinion with the Fathers that every magician had an attendant Evil Spirit, who came when summoned, obeyed his commands, and taught him ceremonies, and forms of words, by which he was enabled to do supernatural things. In this way, they were accustomed to account for miracles performed by Gentiles and heretics. They also state that Jews could cast out devils, gifts among us at this day, and both men and women indued with extraordinary powers by the Spirit of God.” Tertullian

says the greater part of converts came to the knowledge of the true God by means of visions. In an argument to prove that women ought to wear veils, he mentions a sister of the Church, to whom an angel, in a dream, revealed the proper length and breadth of the veil.

Cyprian says: “Besides visions of the night, even boys among us are filled with the Holy Ghost, and in fits of ecstasy, see, hear, and speak things by which the Lord thinks fit to instruct us."

The Fathers acknowledge that skilful magicians, by aid of Evil Spirits, could perform similar miracles; being able to infuse into people whatever dreams or visions they thought fit. Justin Martyr, addressing the Roman people, says: "Let their magical power to call up ghosts, especially of boys, and of those who died in some violent manner, convince you that the souls of men exist after death."

The general tendency to view things in a supernatural light is indicated by the following circumstance, which Cyprian considered so remarkable, that he deemed it necessary to assure his readers he himself witnessed it. Certain parents, who fled hastily in time of persecution, left an infant in the care of a nurse. She carried it to the place where the people assembled to sacrifice, and the officiating priests gave the child some remains of what had been offered to the gods; consisting of bread dipped in wine. The mother returned soon after, and carried the babe with her to the Christian Sacrament. “Being mingled with the saints, it was seized with fits of crying, with tortures of mind, as if it had been upon the rack; betraying all the signs its tender age could give of a consciousness of guilt. When the deacon offered the cup of wine, the infant, by a divine instinct, turned away, and shut its lips close. When he poured a little down its throat, by force, convulsions and vomitings ensued. The consecrated portion of the Lord's blood could not stay in a body and mouth so defiled. So great is the power and majesty of the Lord! The secrets of darkness are detected by its light; for this happened to an infant too young to tell the crime practised upon it.”

Irenæus says many in his day received the gift of tongues, and were heard to speak all kinds of languages in the church. He himself did not receive that gift; for being appointed Bishop in Gaul, he complains that one of the greatest obstructions in the way of his usefulness was the necessity of learning a barbarous dialect before he could communicate with his people.

Among innumerable miracles recorded is the following, wrought by Narcissus, who was Bishop of Jerusalem; about the end of the second century. During the vigil of Easter, the oil in the lamps was nearly exhausted, and the people were greatly troubled. The bishop ordered those who had charge of the lamps to draw water from a neighbouring well and bring it to him. He prayed over it, and then told them to pour it into the lamps with sincere faith in Christ. They did so, “and by a miraculous and divine power, the water was changed to oil.” Eusebius recorded this in his Ecclesiastical History, a hundred years after; and he says that “numbers of the faithful still preserved small quantities of the oil.”

In some cases, the stories of miracles performed by Gentiles, in the course of being repeated year after year, came to be transferred to the Christians. In the year one hundred and seventy-four, when the army of Marcus Aurelius was expecting an attack from the enemy, the blazing sun shone full in the faces of the soldiers, who were perishing with thirst, in consequence of a long continued drought. In this extremity, the emperor stretched forth his hands to implore aid from Jupiter, saying: “This hand, which has never yet shed human blood, I raise to thee!" This act of devotion was followed by an abundant shower of rain, to allay their thirst, succeeded by a tempest, which terrified their enemies. The Romans gained the victory, and ascribed it to the emperor's prayer to “Jupiter, god of gods.” Marcus Aurelius commemorated the event by a medal, on which Jupiter was

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