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and expression in a formal protest by the primate to the king, which ran : “By your act you labour to set up the most damnable and heretical doctrine of the Church of Rome, the whore of Babylon ; how hateful it will be to God and grievous to your good subjects, the professors of the gospel, that your majesty, who hath often disputed and learnedly written against those heresies, should now shew yourself a patron of those wicked doctrines which your pen hath told the world, and your conscience tells yourself, are superstitious, idolatrous, and contemptible." 227

On November 5th, the floor of a house in Blackfriars, in

927 Rushw. I. p. 85; Fuller, X. p. 106. Some put the letter down to the Archbishop of York, but Abbot, who “was at the head of the doctrinal puritans," does not seem to have disavowed it. * The Spanish match " had been projected so long before as 1616, but now James wrote to the king of Spain : “I have sent you my son, a prince sworn of Scotland ; you may do with his person what you please; the like with myself and my kingdom,—they are all at your service. So God keep you.” The pope gave a dispensation, but clogged with conditions, and James, who was willing to admit, “if the pope would quit his godhead and usurping over kings, to acknowledge him for the chief bishop to which all appeals of churchmen ought to lie in dernier resort," swore formally to certain articles and took other and private oaths. Parliament, however, finally interfered, and the match was broken off. Collier, VII. pp. 445, 446; Cyp. Ang. p. 106; Birch, 1. p. 447; Halliwell, 11. pp. 162, 187; Journ. H. of C. p. 720. For, and upon, the articles sworn to, the oaths taken, and the correspondence between the king, the prince, and the pope, see Rushw. I. pp. 86—100; Halliwell, 11. pp. 159, 196, 206, 216, 217; Dodd, ini. p. 2. See also Neal, 1. pp. 483-487; Tierney, iv. pp. 147-152 ; v. pp. 115–153. There was a general jail delivery of all Jesuits, priests, and other papists. Birch, 11. p. 326; Rushw. I. p. 101; Fuller, X. p. 101. The prince swore that so often as the Infanta required him, he “would give ear to divines or others whom her highness shall be pleased to employ in matter of the Roman Catholic's religion.” Rushw. I. p. 90. A bull, "wherein the lowly servus serv'orum soon drops the menial character and rises to the demeanour and lordly energy of an all-powerful monarch," appointed Dr. Bishop, bishop of Chalcedon, who privately went to London to exercise episcopal jurisdiction. Panzani, p. 100; Rushw. I. pp. 91, 155; Dodd, 11. pp. 465—472 ; 11. pp. 4– 17; Collier, vil. p. 451; Lingard, vii. pp. 122–128. The appointment was noticed in the House of Commons, and complaint was made of “a great insolency committed by a popish recusant, stiling himself the Bishop of Chalcedon,” who

came not privately but in public, confirmed above 400 in a few houses, changed the name of baptism,” and “had six chaplains, his mitre and robes." It was said that all “seminary priests” were traitors, and that the land was full of them. Journ. H. of C. pp. 674, 718.

a

which mass was being said, gave way, and ninety-five of those present were killed.228

42. A.D. 1624. In February parliament and convocation met.

In that of Canterbury, a complaint was made by the College of Physicians against ministers practising physic, and the archbishop forthwith inhibited them, save in their own parishes and for charity. He afterwards “complained of the irregular habits of clerks, exhorting amendment.” A proposal for an examination of the various MSS. of the fathers, councils, and ecclesiastical writers extant in the university and other libraries was made, and unanimously acceded to, a subsidy was granted, and finally the assembly was dissolved by the death of the king.229

In the commons bills were brought in for the better observance of the sabbath,230 against profane swearing, 231 scandalous ministers,232 and simony.233 It was also ordered that "all complaints, in writing, concerning corruption of religion or learning” were to be considered first of all in committee. 234 A Dr. Harris was brought to the bar for “venting his spleen in the pulpit" about the election of Bletchingley. He was ordered to come as a delinquent and confess his fault kneeling, and to make public confession in his church, and so was dismissed with the advice to bear no ill-will to

228 “The dead were buried in two pits behind the houses, and black crosses were erected, which were taken down by order of council.” St. Pap. Dom. James I. cliv. No. 17; Birch, II. pp. 428—431 ; Fuller, X. p. 102 ; Cyp. Ang.

p. 112.

229 Wilk. Conc. iv. pp. 467-469; Card. Syn. II. p. 592. See Wake, p. 411 and Hacket, p. 173 on the form of writ. Two cases of privilege occurred.

230 See, on the meeting of parliament, Birch, II. pp. 443, 449, 451–457 ; Hacket, pp. 173–200; Rushworth, I. pp. 115--150; Stat. Pap. Dom. James I. CLXIII. Nos. 32, 33; Journ. H. of C. pp. 671, 673, 678, 730; H. of L. pp. 248, 249, 252. It passed the commons and was read thrice in the lords.

Journ. H. of C. pp. 672, 673, 678; H. of L. pp. 248, 249, 257. It passed both houses. 232 Journ. H. of C. pp. 699, 781, 784. It appears to have been committed.

Journ. H. of C. p. 704; H. of L. P. 393. It passed the commons and was read once in the lords.

Journ. H. of C. pp. 695, 780.

231

233

234

his neighbours, and to forbear to question them upon tithes.235 A complaint was made of the Bishop of Norwich, and was referred to the committee of grievances, whose report was sent up to the lords. There were six charges. 1. The inhibition of preaching on the sabbath day in the morning. 2. The setting up of crucifixes and images; a dove on the font, fluttering over the water, which the bishop blessed (the non-observance of the king's ecclesiastical laws being matter for the consideration of the house). 3. The punishing those who prayed not towards the east. 4. The punishing a minister for catechising his family and singing of psalms. 5. Various extortions. 6. The non-registry of institutions.236 Sundry abuses, oppressions, and extortions of the ecclesiastical court at Northampton were also reported. 237 On May 29th, parliament was prorogued, the king in his speech reminding the commons that as “touching their complaint against Dr. Anyan, their oath of supremacy forbids them to meddle with church matters.” 238

43. In November, the “articles concerning religion” were

235 Journ. H. of C. pp. 695, 781. He also appears to have held that his curate should have a voice in the election, the clergy and laity being one body. The house, however, a month afterwards, passed a resolution to the effect that neither scholars nor fellows who had no other freehold, nor parsons or vicars having glebes, ought to vote for knights of the shire, then or thereafter. Journ. pp. 714, 798.

256 The matter was dealt with in a conference of both houses, and the bishop (Dr. Harsnet) made an elaborate defence in the lords, denying the charges generally and severally. He pointed out how he abhorred both the usurpations and pretensions of the pope, “his religion dyed with blood,” his sham miracles and relics, and the equivocation of priests and Jesuits.. He said he was a true member of the Church of England which came nearest to the primitive church, and was reformed, not upon the lines of Wicklif, Huss, or Luther, but “from the first four hundred years after Christ.” He explained the first charge, and denied the second, third, fifth, and sixth, saying he did not know of and never saw the images complained of, and never enjoined, or even heard of, the praying to the east. And so the matter was referred to the high commission. Journ. H. of C. pp. 699, 701, 705, 715, 784, 786, 790, 798 ; H. of L. pp. 245, 362, 388-390. See St. Pap. Dom. James I. clxiv. No. 86, CLxv. No. 2.

237 Journ. H. of C. p. 709. The matter was to stand over to next session.

238 Journ. H. of L. p. 425; H. of C. 1. pp. 692, 707, 713, 777, 791, 796, 810, 864; Parl. Hist. I. p. 1498. Dr. Anyan was president of Corpus Christi, Oxford ; and the commons had petitioned for his removal for sundry offences and misdemeanours.

sworn to, and the match with France concluded ;239 and the French ambassador was royally entertained at Cambridge and Westminster in December, with feasting and music. 240 On March 27th of the following year the king died.

239 66

"They were not much short of those with Spain.” The match was given by Buckingham as the principal reason for the prorogation of parliament. Rushworth, I. p. 152 ; Tierney, v. pp. 154-160 (where December 12th is given as the date of the ratification of the treaty), and App. pp. cccxlvi. -cccliii.; Cyp. Ang. p. 123; Hacket, p. 209; Ellis, iii. pp. 169—181 (ist ser.); Birch, 11.

p. 487.

240 “Three anthems" were “sung by the best of the chapel (Trinity) and that choir, in rich copes and vestments." Birch, II. p. 485. Gaudy copes were worn both by laymen and clerks on festal and state occasions. Hacket mentions the ambassadors' visit to Westminster, where “the quiremen, vested in their rich copes, with their choristers, sung three several answers. Pt. I, p. 210.

The gentlemen of the royal chapel also wore them.

CHAPTER VII.

THE REIGNS OF CHARLES I. AND II.

From March 27th, 1625, to January ist, 1666.

1. When King Charles "succeeded to the crown, he was at first thought favourable to the puritans, for his tutor and all his court were of that way ;

"I but the mistake was soon found out, for the king's death was followed by the arrival of the papal rescript granting the dispensation for the French marriage, and Charles at once ratified the treaty he had signed as prince. Laud, too, on April 5th, gave in a schedule of names of clergy, distinguishing the orthodox and the puritans.

2. On May Ist, the king directed the lord keeper to order all proceedings against his Roman catholic subjects to be

3

I Burnet, Hist. of his own Times, p. 10; Hacket, pt. I. pp. 204—206 ; Fuller, XI. p. 119.

2 Tierney, v. pp. 159, cccxlix. ; Lingard, vii. p. 142. For the ecrit secret, and the pope's letter to the princess Henrietta, see Dodd, 11. pp. 167, 168. “ Decrevimus,” wrote Urban, “tandem matrimonium illud contrahi posse,” in the hope that it would be of use to the church (quod igitur ecclesiae faustum et Angliae salutare sit, proficisere annuente pontifice, et comitantibus angelis). The pope set before the princess the example of Esther, “electi populi liberatrix,” of Clotilda, “quae triumphantem sponsum Christo suscepit in Gallia,” and of Adelburga, “cujus in Britanniam nuptiae attulerunt religionem.” She was exhorted cum religionem Romanam in thalami societatem et regni consortium introduces, ne patere eam illic squalore carceris tabescere et suppliciorum formidine deterreri.”

On February 4th, Richard Smith had been appointed bishop of Chalcedon in succession to Bishop, who had died on April 16th ; whilst the cognisance and decision of all causes in the second instance" and of all appeals was reserved to the nuncio in France. Smith, however, was soon involved in a squabble with the regulars, and withdrew to France. Panzani, pp. 108—111; St. Pap. Dom. Chas. I. 1. 86; see Journ. H. of C. vi. pp. 282, 303; Fuller, XI. p. 132; Flanagan, 11. pp. 309, 310.

3 Rushw. I. p. 167 ; Laud, Hist. p. 16; Neal, 1. p. 499. The letters 0 and P were placed opposite the names.

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