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necessity “either in sense.or grammar," for it will be difficult to sound any of them double in the beginning of a word, or after a silent Sheva.

Dagesh forte causes the letter in which it appears to be read dou. ble. It generally follows a short vowel, rarely a long one, unless accented, but not after a sheva, simple or compound. Besides other uses, it points out the definitive article 17, according to the judgment of the Masorites, by following it in the next letter. In like manner they have used it to point out the i conversive, when such 1 precedes syn (technically fn'x) the prefixes of the future, by placing Dagesh after it. And often when in the second letter, it shows the absence of a similar one.

The gutturals x, 77, n, and y do not receive Dagesh, either because they cannot be sounded double, or because three of these are ill fated letters and doomed to be silent, and the other (n) is naturally an aspirate, and can be nothing else.

Maccaph* is a small line resembling a Hyphen (-) but placed to range with the upper edge of the bodies of the letters. It joins words together, generally those of one syllable, to the next succeeding, when the long vowel under such word is changed to a short one; as where Kamets is thereby changed to Kamets Chatuph, and is read Kol; but's and 1 are exceptions; as, -85 is la, and

2 is la, and -rip is ma. Accents are divided into tonic and 'euphonic. The tonic accent usually falls upon the last or penultimate syllable of a word. When upon the last, it is called yohn Milra, when upon the penultimate, Syno Milhel. Roots are generally accented on the last syllable.

As every syllable must have a vowel, so it is said that which is not joined to the following one by Maccaph should have an accent; which is frequently expressed. The accents direct in the pronunciation of the word, show the sentence begun or ended, distinguish the members, point out the last letter of the root, and serve other purposes, particularly of melody.

They are divided into kings, princes, and servants; over all of which some place emperors. Those of inferior dignity serve to show where the stress of the voice must be laid, direct the length or undulation of the note; and carry on the respiration till they arrive at a king or one of authority superior to them, who arrests their progress by interposing a pause, and protects his own territories. It may

so serve,


every word

* From po the Huph. part. of 7p3 Syr. 10 connect.

at least to amuse the reader, to inform him, that those, who possess the honourable titles, have also their own particular subordinates: thus king Rebia is generally preceded by his servant Munach; and the emperor Sarka has Segol for a king, Pashta for a prince, and Mahpach for a servant. But Sarka usually ranks only as a prince..

The six Kings. Rebia yn is so called because it lies upon, or over the middle

of the letter. It is a dot something larger than Holem; and is distinguishable by this also, that Holem is over the edge or side of the letter. Rebia denotes a pause

equal to a semicolon. Sakeph Katon a pop opp because it elevates the voice le88 than Sa

keph gadol. It is two dots like Sheva above the letter;

and denotes a pause equal to a comma. Sakeph gadol X 5172 pr because it raises the voice with an addition

al effort. It is in all respects the Sakeph Katon, with a perpendicular line on the left hand side of the two

dots. Segolta i enbad because it resembles a bracelet. It is like a Segol,

and sometimes is so called, placed over the letter; and

denotes a pause equal to a semicolon. Sylluk & pho because it is used at the end of the verse and of the

word. It is a small perpendicular line under the letter. It denotes a pause equal to a period, or soph-passuch.

Vide page 9, ante. Athnah NIMå because it denotes a respiration. It is a small semi

circle under the letter with its convex side uppermost, and a small line ascending from its apex towards the letter. It is equal to a colon.

The Ten Princes. Sarka 8* xp? because a scatterer of the voice. In some books it is

like a small s fallen on its left side, and lying over the top of the letter; in others, it is a small o above the letter, with a horizontal line proceeding from its left

* Where the character is wanting, the reader can, from the description, easily supply the defect with his pen.

side, which line as it advances inclines downwards. It

is at the end of the word. Pashta X xuvo because it extends the sound. It is a small line over

and perpendicular to the letter, but curved a little with its points towards the left. It is also usually found only

at the end of a word. Geresch vu because it suddenly expels the sound. It resembles the

Pashta, but its points are towards the right. Gereschajim & own because it doubles the effect of the Geresch. It

is two perpendicular and parallel curves above the

letter, like that of the Geresch. Telischa magnum & obora suihn because it draws out greatly the

voice from the breast. It is a small o above the letter, with a small right line proceeding from it downwards towards the left.

Karne parah & 1199 op because it resembles the horns' of a heifer.

It is two such characters as the preceding, but with their points converging downwards, towards the mid

dle of the top of the letter. Patser & 7 because it disperses the sound. It is a small semicircle

above the letter, with its convex side downwards, and a tangent drawn from its left hand end perpendicularly

towards the letter. Schalscheleth penolic because it resembles a chain. It is a small

character above the letter like the Greek . Tebir man because it denotes a broken sound. It is a small seg

ment of a circle standing upon one end, concave to the left, and containing sometimes a dot, sometimes a line,

and sometimes another smaller concentric curve. Tiphcah - nou because it'requires the imitation of a wearied or

subsiding voice. It is a somewhat curved perpendicu, lar line below the letter, and hollow to the right.

The eight Servants. n9 in. ***; 'I Munach And because it resembles a horn turned aside. It re

sembles a Patha under the letter with a small perpen.

dicular line standing on its right hand extremity. Mahpach & Jons, because it resembles a hora gurned backward,

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It is an acute angle below the letter, with its angular
point to the left hand. It is sometimes called Jetibb in

the beginning of a word.
Merca X-010 because a lengthener of the sound. It is a curved

perpendicular line below the line hollow to the left. Merca Kephula - bo xato the double Merca. It is two parallel

20. Mercas below the letter..
Darga -177 because it denotes a change of the sound by degrees.

It is a very small is below the letter.
Kadma X-97p because it goes before. It is the same with Pashta,

except that the character is called Kadma in the ben

ginning'or middle, and Pashtà in the end of a word. Telischa parvum 8–100 vn the little relischa. Vide ante. It is

a small o above the letter, with a small line proceed

ing from it downwards, bat inclining to the right. Jareach Ben Jomox-91-p-nr from its resemblance of the moon

a day old. It is the inverted Athinah, and stands, like it,

below the letter.* The Euphonic accent is called ino Metheg, because as a bridle, it restrains the voice. It is termed rhetorical or euphonic, because it renders the sound more pleasant. Its character is the same with that of the tonic accent Sylluk, and is also placed below the line. But Sylluk is found in the last word of the verse or sentence, Metheg under any of the words; and when they both occur in the same word, the first is Metheg, the last Sylluk.

The various rules relative to the uses and changes of the tonic and euphonic accents; and their numerous effects on the vowel points, with their anomalies; and the diversity of distinctions, and modes of treatment of the subject of the points, may afford employment for

of an ordinary life. And after all, the only fruit which can result is to communicate with the Jews, who strictly follow the points, and to understand the Masoretic gloss of the sacred standards, which, to say the least, is in some instances a perversion of the plainest and most natural sense of the sacred text.

* Pesik pop is a musical pause, being a small perpendicular line placed between two words thus, 3. 19. Hillui is in the form of the Munach, but is placed over the word. Also Munach and Mabpach are sometimes placed above the line; there may be also one accent above and another below the same letter.

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Reading with Points exemplified in Psal. cxxxix. 1. nyip* Unders is the tonic accent Tiphcah, and the short vowel Patha: under is a Sheva; which is not sounded, because it follows a short vowel. Under 3 is Patha: under 3 is Tseri, and in it Dagesh forte; whereby it is rendered double, or is twice read. Under n is Patha furtivum. Lamnats-tseah.

71717 Under 5 is Sheva; which is read, because in the first of the word. Under 7 is Kamets. Under 1 is short Hirick, and the tonic accent Munach. Le David.

71910 Under p is short Hirick. Under 1 is Sheva, which is not sounded, because it follows a short vowel. Under o is Athnah, equivalent to a colon; and after it, Holem in the same syllable with o and 7. Mizmor.

7717 Underis Sheva, which is sounded because it stands first. After 77 is Holem. Under the 1 is Kamets, whereby it is read as a v; and also the tonic accent Merca, which lengthens the sound. Jehovah.

npn Over n is Kadma, in one copy Geresch, and under it Sheva and Patha, or Chateph Patha. Under p is Patha. Under is Sheva; which is not sounded, because it follows a short vowel. Over nis Rebia, equal to a semicolon; under it Patha, and in it Dagesh lene, following a silent Sheva. Under 3 is long Hirick. Hakartanee.

*yin1 Under 1 is Patha. Under n is Tseri, and in it Dagesh forte, which renders it double. Under 7 is Kamets, and with it Sylluk; which terminates the verse, and is equal to a period. Nevertheless the soph passuck (pod 700) or Hebrew period follows. Vattedang.

2. 188. Under the x is Patha. Under n is Kamets, and the tonic accent Munach, and in it Dagesh forte. Attah.

nyny. Underis Tiphcah, and also Patha. Under 7 also Patha. Under y is Sheva; but not sounded, because it follows a short vowel. Under n is Kamets, and in it Dagesh lene after a silent Sheva. Ja. dang-ta.

* The learner may, for his own improvement, annex with his pen, the points to the Hebrew letters.

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