Utilitarianism (Second Edition)
This expanded edition of John Stuart Mill’s Utilitarianism includes the text of his 1868 speech to the British House of Commons defending the use of capital punishment in cases of aggravated murder. The speech is significant both because its topic remains timely and because its arguments illustrate the applicability of the principle of utility to questions of large-scale social policy.
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according action admit amount appears become believe beneﬁt bring called character claim common concerned conduct connected consequences consideration considered constitutes creatures cultivated death depend derives desire difﬁculty direct distinction doctrine duty elements equally ethical evidence evil existence expect expediency fact faculties feeling fellow ﬁnd ﬁrst force give given greater greatest greatest happiness principle ground habitual happiness higher human hurt idea impossible included individual inﬂict inﬂuence injustice intensity interest Judges justice kind least less mankind maximize means Mill Mill’s mind mode moral motive murder nature necessary notion object obligation opinion origin pain particular person philosopher pleasure possible practical preference present principle of utility proof punishment question reason recognize regard requires rule sanctions sentiment social society sources standard suffering sufﬁcient superior supposed term theory things tion ultimate universal unjust utilitarian violate virtue whole wrong
Sayfa xiii - Of two pleasures, if there be one to which all or almost all who have experience of both give a decided preference irrespective of any feeling of moral obligation to prefer it, that is the more desirable pleasure.