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another, unto the promotion of the glory of God. And therefore, though in the creation of all things, that work was suited to the state and condition wherein they were created, that is, of innocence and holiness; yet this hinders not, but that God might and did so order them, that they might have a respect to that future work of his in their restoration by Christ, which was then no less known unto him, than that which was perfectJy wrought.
3. The most reasonable and intelligible way of declaring the order of God's decrees, is that which casts them under the two general heads, which all rational agents respect in their purposes and operations; namely, of the last end, and the means conducing thereunto. Now, the utmost end of God in all his ways towards the sons of men, being the manifestation of his own glory by the way of mercy and justice, whatever tendeth thereto is all jointly to be looked on, as one entire means tending to that end and purpose. The works therefore of the old and new creation being of this sort and nature, one joint and general means for the compassing of the forementioned end, nothing can hinder but that they may have that respect to each other, which before we have declared.
Ver. 3.--The apostle in the pursuit of his argument, proceeds in the description of the person of Christ; partly as giving a farther account of what he had before affirmed concerning his divine power in making the worlds ; and partly to instruct the Hebrews from their own typical institutions, that it was the Messiah who was figured and represented formerly unto them, in those signs and pledges of God's glorious presence which they enjoyed. And so by the whole, he confirmeth the proposition he had in hand, concerning the excellence and eminence of him by whom the gospel was revealed, that their faith in him, and obedience unto him, might not be shaken or hindered.
Ver. 3.-ος ων απαύγασμα της δοξης, και χαρακτης της υποστασεως
αυτε, φερων τε τα παντα τω ρηματι της δυναμεως αντε, δι' εαυτο καθαρισμος ποιησαμενος των αμαρτιων ημων, καθισεν εν δεξια της μι
γαλοσυνης εν υψηλοις. . si leurs, is wanting in M. S. T. but the sense requires the words, and all other ancient copies retain them: mwy is wanting in some copies: and one or two for exabies, have xubice, which hath nothing whereunto it should relate. Some also read, ev 5W lgoro Tas pesyadorurns ; taken from chap. xii. 2. where the word is used.
Os as, qui est; qui cum sit ; qui existens ; 'who is ;' 'who, when he is, or was ; ' " who existing ;' as Phil. ii. 6. és itaexpus
uogan Ols, who being in the form of God.
Who being, anevycouc ons dofns, splendor, radius, jubar, effulgentia, refulgentia, relucentia. The splendour, ray, beam, effulgency,' or shining forth of glory. "Syr. and Germen, so Boderius, the branch;' Tremelius and D' Dieu, splendor, the Arabic concurring:
Avyn, is lux, • light ;' particularly the morning-light, Acts xx. 11. opernodes axeis auyns, he talked until the break of day, or the beaming of the morning light; avyn haix, Glos. Vet. jubar solis ; the sun-beam; and sometimes it denotes the day itself. It is also sometimes used for the light that is in burning iron : anavyn, is of the same signification : properly splendor lucis, the brightness, shining, beauty, glory, or lustre of light. Hence is evaye's own, to shine forth, to shine into, to irradiate, 2 Cor. iv. 4. us to len kuyaoko autols, that the light of the gospel should not irradiate, shine into them. Ataupoelw, is of the same import; and from thence απαύγασμα. .
The word is no where used in the New Testament save in this place only ; nor doth it occur in the Old of the LXX. Only we have it, Wisd. vii. 26. Wisdom is said to be au&uyaouze Qutos aïdix, a beam of elernal light; to which place the margin of our translation refers. And it is so used by Nazianzen, μεγαλα φωτος μικρον απαύγασμα ; α little beam of a great light. It answers exactly to the Hebrew 193 or 79 023; that is, the morning light, Prov. iv. 18. The path of the righteous, 17725 7985, ut lur splendoris, Hierome ; as the light of brightness; that is, of the morning, xuyn, Acts xx. Il. And it is also applied to the light of fire, or fire in iron, Isa. iv. 5. Wk 7), the light of fire; and the fiery streaming of lightening, Heb. iii. 11.
The brightness, shining, ray, beam, tas dolens, of glory ; some look on this expression as a Hebraism; atau yaoua ens dons, the beam of glory; for sdogov aukuyaour, a glorious beam ; but this will not answer the design of the apostle, as we shall see afterwards.
Our translators have supplied his, the brightness of his glory, hy repeating duty, from the end of the sentence; perhaps as we shall find, not altogether necessarily; in which cases alone, such supplements unto the text are allowed in translations.
Kao xapexing, character, imago, forma, figura, expressa forma, figura expressa, , Syr. the character, image, form, sigure, express form, express figure;' so variously is the word rendered by translators with little difference. It is no where used in the New Testament, but only in this place. In other authors it hath many significations. Sometimes they use it properly and naturally ; sometimes metaphorically and artificially; as when it denotes several forms of speech, or orations. Properly from xaequoow or xaqatta, to engrave with a tool, or style, is Lugarpiece and xogaxtne, which is first and properly, the note
or mark cut by a tool or instrument into wood, or any other subject capable of such impression; or the stamp and sign that is left in the coining of money. The mark or scar also left by a wound, is by the LXX. termed yogurtue, Lev. xiii. 25. It is in general an express representation of another thing communicated unto it, by an impression of its likeness upon it; opposed unto that which is umbratile and imaginary.
TM Utortatis duts, substantia, subsistentia, persona ; Syr. nin'x7, substantia ejus; hypostasis, substance, subsistence, person. The word is four times used in the New Testament. Thrice in this epistle ; in this place, and chap. ii. 14. and chap. xi. 1. as also, 2 Cor. ix. 4. every where in a different sense; so that the mere use of it in one place, will afford no light unto the meaning of it in another: but it must be taken from the context and subject treated of. The composition of the word would denote substantia, but so as to differ from, and to add something unto you, substance, or being ; which in the divine nature can be nothing but a special manner of subsistence. But into the discussion of the controversy that hath been about the precise signification of these words, we shall not here enter.
Oscar, agens, regens, moderans ; ' acting, disposing, ruling, governing;' also portans, bajulans, sustinens ; bearing, support. ing, carrying, upholding;' which of these senses is peculiarly intended, we shall afterwards inquire into.
Tw impati rus duramews arts; by the word of his power; by his powerful word; Syr. Onban x512, by the power of his word; changing the order of the words, but not the meaning of them; by the power of his word, or the word of his power; that is, his powerful word. kurs, some would read it auts, and refer it unto the Father; by the powerful word of him, that is of the Father, by whose power, they say, the Son disposeth of all things. But all copies with accents have dutx constantly, none Kutx, nor will the disposition of the words bear that reference.
Ai lautx; by himself, in his own person.
Katagiouor Tomcaptivos. Purgationem faciens ; purgatione facta. Having purged, cleansed, expiated, or purified us from our sins: having made a purgation or purification of our sins.
Exæber, kabila, is used both neutrally and actively; answering to av, both in Kal and Hiphil; signifying to sit down, and to cause to sit down. Chrysostom seems to have understood the word in the latter sense; referring it to God the Father causing the Son to sit down. But it is hard to find any antecedent word whereby it should be regulated, but only ós, who, in the beginning of the verse; that is, he himself: and as Erasmus observes, ytrojesvos, in the following words, will not
grammatically admit of this construction; for if sxalıcs, be to be understood actively and transitively, it must have been yoyousves. And the apostle clears the neutral sense of the word, chap. viii. 1. It is well then rendered by our translators : he sat, or sat down.
Ev dežice, Psal. cx. 1. pub av; LXX. xebey ix držuw, in the plural number; so is the same thing expressed, Acts vii. 55. and by Mark, sy dižios, chap. xvi. 5. Our apostle constantly keepeth the singular number, with sy, chap. i. 13. viii. 1. xii. Ź The same thing in both expressions is intended; only that of sx dežuw, or sy değions, in the plural number is more eminently destructive of the folly of the Anthropomorphites; for they cannot hence pretend that God hath a right hand, unless they will grant that he hath many; which were not only to turn the glory of the invisible God into the likeness of a man, but of a monster. And Austin well observes, that in the Psalm, where that expression is first used, sit on my right hand; it is added, 72993-57 1778, the Lord on thy right hand; at the right hand of him, who sat on his right hand: which removes all carnal apprehensions from the meaning of the words.
Tns pesyalmourns. This word is seldom used in other authors: twice in this Epistle, here, and ch. viii. 1. once by Jude, ver. 25. and no where else in the New Testament: by the LXX. not at
. , , as they are used appellatively, for glory, power or majesty, but as they are names, and denote the essential glory of God, the glorious God. So that prydawruin is. God himself, not absolutely considered, but with reference to the revelation of his glory and majesty in heaven ; God on his throne, as our apostle declareth, ch. viii. 1.
Ey indoss, in the highest. MesyaAuruma s infamous, is intratos ; that is, prsy, the Highest, God himself. See Luke i. 35.
not ,כבודה or ,כבוד all. The apostle evidently expresseth by it
Ver. 3.-Who being the brightness of glory, and the express
image of his Person, and upholding, or disposing of, all things by the word of his power, having by himself purged our sins,
sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high. The apostle proceeds in his description of the person in whom God spake in the revelation of the gospel ; ascending unto such a manifestation of him, as that they might understand his eminence above all who were formerly used in the like ministrations; as also how he was pointed out and shadowed by sundry types and figures under the Old Testament.
Of this description there are three parts: the first declaring what he is; the second, what he doth, or did; and the third the consequent of them both, in what he enjoyeth.
Of the first part of this description of the Messiah, there are two branches, or it is two ways expressed. For he affirms of him, first, That he is the brightness, beam or' splendour of the glory; and secondly, the express image, or character of his Father's person.
In the second also there are two things assigned unto him : the former relating unto his power; as he is the brightness of glory; he sustaineth, or ruleth and disposeth of all things by the word of his power. The latter unto his love and work of mediation ; by himself, or in his own person, he hath purged our sins.
His present and perpetual enjoyment, as a consequent of what he was and did, or doth, is expressed in the last words : " He sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high.”
Some of these expressions may well be granted to contain some of those durventa, things hard to be understood, which Peter affirms to be in this Epistle of Paul, 2 Epist. iii. 16. which unstable and unlearned men have in all ages wrested unto their own destruction. The things intended are unquestionably sublime and mysterious. The terms wherein they are expressed are rare, and no where else used in the Scripture to the same purpose; some of them not at all, which deprives us of one great help in the interpretation of them. The metaphors used in the words, or types alluded to by them, are abstruse and dark; so that the difficulty of discovering the true, precise and genuine meaning of the Holy Ghost in them is such, as that this verse, at least some part of it, may well be reckoned among those places which the Lord hath left in his word, to exercise our faith and diligence and dependance on his Spirit, for a right understanding of them. It may be indeed, that from what was known and acknowledged in the Judaical church, the whole intention of the apostle was more plain unto them, and more plainly and clearly delivered, than now it seemeth to us to be, who are deprived of their advantages. However, both to them and us, the things were and are deep and mysterious. And we shall desire to handle, as it becometh us, both things and words with reverence and godly fear, looking up unto him for assistance, who alone can lead us into all truth.
We begin with the double description given us of the Lord Christ at the entrance of the verse, as to what he is in himself; and here a double difficulty presents itself unto us : First, In general unto what nature in Christ, or unto what of Christ, this description doth belong. Secondly, What is the particular meaning and import of the words or expressions themselves.
For the first, some assert that these words intend only the divine nature of Christ, wherein be is consubstantial with his Father. Herein as he is said to be, God of God, and Light of Light, an expression doubtless taken from hence, receiving as the Son his nature and subsistence from the Father, so fully and absolutely as that he is every way the same with him in respect