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filled, which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying: Behold a virgin shall conceive, and shall bring forth a son, and they shall call his name Emmanuel, which is God with us. And John iii. 34, 35. “ For he whom God hath sent, speaketh the words of God. For God giveth not the Spirit by measure unto him. The Father loveth the Son, and hath given all things into his hand.” Col. i. 19. “ For it pleased the Father, that in him should all fulness dwell.” And ch. ii. “ In whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge.” And ver. 19. “ For in him dwelleth all the fulness of the godhead bodily.”

“ And we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father.” As before hinted, it was not “ the Word,” which St. John and others beheld, but Jesus in whom the Word dwelled. Him they beheld: and his greatness was conspicuous; so that he appeared, and they knew him to be “ the only begotten of the Father," or the Messiah.

“ Only begotten Son.” The same phrase is again in John iii. 16 and 18. in our Lord's conference with Nicodemus. " Only begotten,” and “well beloved Son” are equivalent. This last is the phrase in several texts: as Matt. iii. 17. Mark i. 11. Luke iii. 22. Matt. xvii. 5. Mark ix. 7. Luke ix. 35. So Prov. iv. 3. “ For I was my father's son, tender, and only beloved in the sight of my mother.” Comp. 1 Chron. xxix. 1.

" The Christ,” or “ the Messiah,” and “ the Son of God," are equivalent in the New Testament. Matt. xvi. 16. Peter's applauded confession of our Lord's character is in these words: “ Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God.” So likewise John vi. 69. But in Mark viii. 29. it is : « Thou art the Christ of God.” And Luke ix. 20. “ the Christ of God.”

And that in the language of the Jews the titles of Messiah and Son of God are the same, may

be seen in Matt. xxvi. 63. and Luke xxii. 66, 70. But now I shall argue it more particularly from St. John's gospel, ch. i. 34—19. John the Baptist bears testimony to Jesus under several characters, all equivalent to that of the Messiah. “ And I saw,” says he, “and bare record, that this is the Son of God. Again, the next day after John stood, and two of his disciples. And looking upon Jesus as he walked, he saith : Behold the Lamb of God.” These disciples are convinced - one of them, which heard John, was Andrew, Simon Peter's brother. He first findeth his own brother Simon, and saith unto him: We have found the MessiasPhilip findeth Nathanael, and saith unto him: We have found him, of whom Moscs in the law and the prophets did write, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph.” Nathanael likewise, after some hesitation, is convinced, and makes a like profession, saying: Rabbi, thou art the Son of God, thou art the King of Israel.”

All these pious men, acquainted with the scriptures of the Old Testament, upon the ground of John's testimony, and their own conversation with Jesus, under somewhat different appellations, but of one and the same meaning, acknowledge Jesus to be the Christ. See also John ix. 35, 36. and 1 John v. 1, 5.

The Jews, it is likely, had learned this title and character of the Messiah from Ps. ii. 7, 12. And see 2 Sam. vii. 14.

When Jesus was baptized, he was solemnly and publicly declared to be the Messiah. “ There came a voice from heaven, saying: This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.” After which having been led up of the Spirit into the wilderness, the tempter, when he came to him, said : “ If thou be the Son of God," that is, If indeed thou art the Son of God,a or the Christ, “ command that these stones be made bread.”

I would now endeavour to show, upon what accounts Jesus is in the scriptures said to be " the Son of God."

Sonship is a term of nearness; dearness, and affection. In general, Jesus is the Son of God, or eminently so, as he is, so far as we know, the person in all the world most dear to God the Father. To be more particular.

1. Jesus is the Son of God, upon account of his miraculous conception and birth.

Luke i. 31–35. “ An angel appeared to Mary, and said unto her: Fear not, Mary. For thou hast found favour with God. And behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and shalt bring forth a son, and thou shalt call his name Jesus. He shall be great, and shall be called the Son

* Il y a simplement dans le Grec, . si vous êtes Fils de de savoir, ‘si Jésus est enfant de Dieu,'mais si'il est 'le Fils de Dieu,' sans article. On ne laisse pas de l'ajoûter. Car le mi- Dieu,' par excellence, c.a. d. le Messie. Lenfant sur Matt.iv.3. racle, que le diable exige de J. C. montre qu'il ne s'agit pas

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of the Highest The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee. Therefore also that holy thing, which shall be born of thee, shall be called the Son of God.” A like history of our Saviour's nativity is in the first chapter of St. Matthew's gospel

2. Jesus is the Son of God, upon account of the especial commission given him by the Father, and the extraordinary qualifications bestowed upon him in order to his fulfilling it.

John X. 36. " Say ye of him, whom the Father has sanctified, and sent into the world, Thou blasphemest, because I said, I am the Son of God ?” When our Lord was baptized, “ the Spirit of God descended like a dove, and rested upon

Mark i. 10. Luke iii. 21, 22. And John i. 32–34. “ And John bare record, saying: I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and it abode upon himAnd I saw, and bare record, that this is the Son of God.” And ch. iii. 34, says John the Baptist again : “God giveth not the Spirit by measure unto him.” Is. xi. 1–3. “And there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a branch shall grow out of his root. And the Spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge, and of the fear of the Lord. And shall make him of quick understanding in the fear of the Lord”- -Comp. Is. xlii. 1-4. chap. Ixi. 1-3. and Matt. xii. 17. and Luke iv. 18, 19. By virtue of this most plentiful and extraordinary communication of the Spirit,

66 without measure,”

or “ the in-dwelling of the Father's fulness in him," as the same thing is at other times expressed, or his being “ in the bosom of the Father,” and acquainted with all his counsels, Jesus knew the whole will of God concerning the salvation of men, and spoke the words of God with full authority, and wrought miracles of all kinds whenever he pleased, and knew the thoughts and characters of men, and things at a distance, and things to come.

3. Jesus is the Son of God, upon account of his resurrection from the dead, on the third day, to die no more.

Rom. i. 3, 4.“ Concerning his Son Jesus Christ our Lord, which was made of the seed of David, according to the flesh : and declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead.” And Heb. i. 6. “ When he bringeth in the first-begotten into the world, he saith: And let all the angels of God worship him." Which some have understood of our Lord's coming into the world at his nativity. But more generally interpreters have understood it of our Lord's entering into his glory, and taking possession of his kingdom after his resurrection. Which brings me to another thing,

4. Jesus is the Son of God, on account of his exaltation to God's right hand, and being invested with authority and dominion over all flesh, and constituted judge of the world, by whom God will pass sentence upon all mankind.

John iii. 35. “ The Father loveth the Son, and hath given all things into his hand.” Ch. v. 21, 22. “ The Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgment unto the Son, that all men should honour the Son, even as they honour the Father.” Heb. i. 1, 2. “ God has in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he has appointed heir” or lord “ of all things,” ch. iii. 5, 6. • Moses verily was faithful in all his house, as a servant But Christ as a Son over his own house."

5. Another token of the especial love of the Father for Jesus Christ, as his own Son, is the pouring out of abundance of spiritual gifts, though in different degrees, upon his apostles, and all who believed in him, after his resurrection.

John i. 32–34. “ And John bare record, saying: “I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove. And it abode upon him. And I knew him not. But he that sent me to baptize with water, the same said unto me: Upon whom thou shalt see the Spirit descending, and remaining, the same is he, which baptizeth with the Holy Ghost. And I saw, and bare record, that this is the Son of God.” Com. Matt. iii. 11. Mark i. 8. Luke iii. 16.

John vii. 37-39. “In the last day, that great day of the feast, Jesus stood, and cried, saying, If any man thirst, let him come to me, and drink. He that believeth on me, as the scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water. This spake he of the Spirit, which they that believe on him should receive: for the Holy Ghost was not yet given, because that Jesus was not yet glorified.”

Acts xi. 15, 16. “ And as I began to speak, the Holy Ghost fell on them, as on us at the

beginning. Then remembered I the word of the Lord, how that he said, John indeed baptized with water; but ye shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost.” See Acts i. 5. and ii. 1—36.

Gal. iv. 6. “ And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father.”

Eph. iv. 8—11. “ When he ascended up on high, he gave gifts unto men :—and he gave some apostles, and some prophets, and some evangelists, and some pastors and teachers.”

Upon all these accounts, and not only upon account of his miraculous conception and birthi, is Jesus “ the Son of God." The texts alleged under each particular sufficiently show that they are all justly mentioned, and that none of them ought to be omitted.

There are some expressions in St. Luke's history of our Lord's nativity of a virgin mother, which show the truth of this observation. They likewise manifestly show, that it is in respect to his humanity, and the dignity conferred upon it, that he has the title of “ the Son of God.”

The expressions, which were partly alleged before, are exceedingly remarkable. And the angel said unto her, Fear not, Mary; for thou hast found favour with God. And behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and shalt bring forth a son; and thou shalt call his name Jesus. He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest. And the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David. And he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever. And of his kingdom there shall be no end.” Luke i. 33.

Upon all the fore-mentioned accounts, then, and his transcendent greatness, Jesus is “ the Son of God.” And all these things may be supposed to be comprehended in that expression, Heb. i. 9, “ Thou hast loved righteousness; and hated iniquity; therefore God, even thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows." The words are a quotation from Ps. xlv. 7. and seem to have been originally intended of Solomon, who by divine choice and designation was preferred before his brethren.” i Chron. xxviii. 5. But they are also fitly applied to the Messiah ; who has been greatly distinguished, and highly honoured above his brethren : meaning men, of whose nature he partook. Heb. ii. 14–16, or prophets, who had the Spirit in a due, but less measure, bestowed upon them.

All these prerogatives has God the Father, in his unsearchable wisdom, conferred upon Jesus of Nazareth, whom he chose and appointed to be the Messiah : who is also “ the seed of the woman,” that should bruise the head of the serpent, Gen. iii. 15. and “ the seed of Abraham,” in and through whom all the families or nations of the earth were to be blessed,” Gen. xii. 3. xviii. 18. Acts iii. 25. Gal. iii. 8. The rod out of the stem of Jesse, and the branch that should grow out of his root, to whom the Gentiles would seek,” Is. ix. 1-10. " Who was to restore the preserved of Israel, and was likewise given to be a light to the Gentiles, that he might be for salvation to the ends of the earth.” Îs. xlix. 6. or, as old Simeon said, “ a light to lighten the Gentiles, and the glory of God's people Israel,” Luke ii. 32. For it is a certain truth, that the grace, which has been manifested by the appearing of Jesus Christ, was from early ages purposed by the Divine Being, and foretold by his prophets. Rom. i. 1-3. Eph. i. 4. 2 Tim. 1. 9, 10. 1 Pet. i. 10-12.

And how agreeable the several articles of this detail are to the scriptures of the Old Testa-ment, must appear from texts already alleged thence. Nevertheless I shall here put together a few other texts, and some of the same more largely than hitherto quoted: not transcribing them now, but referring to them, and entreating you, if you please, to read and consider them. at your leisure.

PS. ii. 6, 7, 8, 11, 12.
Ps. xxii. throughout.

Is. xlii. 1. “ Behold my servant, whom I uphold, my servant, in whom my soul delighteth.” Almost the very words of the voice, that came from heaven at our Lord's baptism and transfiguration. “ I have put my Spirit upon him. He shall bring forth juilgment unto the Gentiles;” and what follows to the end of ver. 7.

Is. xlix. 1–6. Compare Acts xiii. 47. and xxvi. 23.

We must now be able to perceive the true character of our blessed Saviour, and the great propriety with which the apostles and evangelists-speak of him.

John i. 45. “ Philip findeth Nathanael, and saith unto him, We have found him of whom Moses in the law and the prophets did write, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph.” And see ver. 46-50. and Acts ii. 22. “ Ye men of Israel, hear these words. Jesus of Nazareth, a man approved of God among you, by miracles, and signs, and wonders, which God did by him in the midst of you, as ye yourselves also know.” See also ver. 36. ch. iv. 27. “ For of a truth, against thy holy child (rather son, or servant] Jesus, whom thou hast anointed, both Herod, and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles, and the people of Israel, were gathered together.” Ch. x. 38. “ How God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Ghost, and with power. Who went about doing good, and healing all that were oppressed of the devil. · For God was with him.” Nor does our dear Redeemer disdain this title in his state of exaltation. For when he called to Saul out of heaven, and “ Saul answered,—Who art thou, Lord ? he said, I am Jesus of Nazareth, whom thou persecutest,” Acts xxii. 6—8. Comp. ch. ix. 5. See also ch. iii. 6. and xxvi. 9.

From all that has been said, it appears that Jesus is a man, appointed, anointed, beloved, honoured and exalted by God above all other beings.

Obj. 1. It may be said : Admitting this notion of our Saviour's person, we shall lose that great instance of humiliation, and condescension, which the Arian scheme sets before us. For according to that, the most exalted spirit, next to God the Father, submits to all the laws of infancy and childhood, and is greatly incommoded by the body during its dwelling on this earth.

To which I answer: I would by no means rob you, or any one else, of any argument that is really suited to engage to humility in particular, or to all virtue in general. But, Papinian, if 1 am not mistaken, it appears from what was before said, that this instance of humiliation is an imaginary thing. It is impossible that so exalted a spirit should be the soul of a human body. If it is not an absolute contradiction, it is incongruous to the nature of things, and in the highest degree improbable.

A Some now by “ the Sou of God" understand an intelli- is my first-born." Ver. 20. “ Is Ephraim my dear son ? is he gent being, or emanation, begotten by the Father, or pro- a pleasant child ?" Hos. xi. 1. “When Israel was a child, ceeding from him, in an ineffable manner, from all eternity, then I loved him, and called my son out of Egypt." To and of the same essence or substance with the Father. Others which I must add Jer. xxxi. 1. " At the same time, saith thereby understand a mighty spirit, or angel, begotten or the Lord, I will be the God of all the families of Israel. And formed by the will of the Father, in time, before the creation they shall be my people.” Comp. ver. 9 and 33. All which of the world, and of a different substance from the Father ; is expressed by St. Paul after this manner. 2 Cor. vi. 18. which Son of God, according to them, became incarnate; “ And I will be a father unto them; and they shall be my that is, united himself, either to the human nature, consisting sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty.” See there also of soul and body, or to a human body, so as to supply the ver. 16 and 17. place of a human soul.

Accordingly, in the New Testament, the Gentiles, who But those senses of this phrase, or title, are not to be found received Jesus as the Christ, being brought into God's family, in any of the books of the New Testament. "The Jews bad and into the number of his people, are called “the sons ‘no notion that their Messiah should be any thing more than of God." John i. 12. “But as many as received him, to

mere man. See Whitby upon Rom. ix. 5. Dr. Jortin's them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to Discourses concerning the Christian Religion, p. 17. which in- them that believe on his name.” Comp. 1 John ii. 1. and see deed is well shown in the passages of ancient authors, alleged Rom. viii. 14–17. Gal. iv. 44-7. and Heb. ii. 10. and elseby Whitby in the place referred to.

where. This will lead us to the true meaning of the title, “ the Son Matt. xxvii. 54. “ Now when the Centurion, and they of God," in the gospels; for there many give our Lord that that were with him, watching Jesus, saw the earthquake, -title, who took him to be a man especially favoured by God. and those things that were done, they feared greatly, saying, This title is given to our Lord, not only by Peter in his con- Truly, this was the Son of God.” Comp. Mark xv. 39. And, fession, Matt. xvi. 16. and the parallel places, and John vi. says St. Luke, ch. xxiii. 47. « Now when the Centurion 69. but :lso by John the Bapiist, John i. 34. iii. 35, 36. by saw what was done, he glorified God, saying, Certainly this Nathanaël, John i. 49. by Martha, xi. 27. and by others, was a righteous man." Malt. xiv. 33. Luke iv. 41. Our blessed Lord likewise often All good men and women, then, are God's sons and daughtakes it to himself either directly or indirectly. John iii. ters. But Jesus, the Messiah, is “ the Son of God," by way 17-18. v 25. ix. 35-37. x. 36. xi. 4.

of eminence and distinction, and has in all things the preThe case seems to be this. In the Jewish style, and the eminence. language of scripture, all good men, and all people, who are This, as it seems to me, is the way of thinking, to wbich in a covenant relation to God, are his sons, and are entitled to we are led, by comparing many texts of the Old and New many blessings and privileges: but Jesus, as the Messiah, is Testament, where the title or denomination of " Son of God," “ the Son of God," by way of eminence and distinction. is used.

Exod. iv. 22, 23. And thou shalt say unto Pharaoh, There is therefore no foundation for the interpretations Thus saith the Lord, Israel is iny son, even my first-born. mentioned at the beginning of this note: which, nevertheAnd I say unto thee, Let my son go, that he may serve me.” less, have been received by many, and have produced intricate Is. xliii. 6. “ Bring my sons from far, and my daughters from schemes and systems, by which the minds of Christians have the ends of the earth." See likewise Is. xlv. 11, 12. and been greatly perplexed, and the world itself sometimes thrown Jer, xxxi. 9. “ For I am a father unto Israel; and Ephraim into confusion and disturbance.


-And if so great a being were to inhabit a human body, it would entirely swallow it That spirit would still retain its own knowledge, and power, and would raise the body above all pains, weaknesses, and wants.

Whatever advantages may be fancied in the Arian scheme, there are much greater inconve. niences attending it. For, as before hinted, it deprives us of the force of our Saviour's example. We are common men. But he is supposed to be the most perfect spirit, next to God. How should any temptation, from the things of this world, affect such a being? How should he be tempted, in all respects, as we are? It could not be. It is altogether irrational.

But there are many and great advantages in supposing Jesus Christ to be a man, consisting of soul and body. His example is then justly set before us in all the strength and beauty, with which it now appears in the gospels and cpistles of the New Testament.

It is also upon the ground of this scheme alone, that the expectation of attaining to a glory, like that of Jesus Christ, can be supported. For which, however, there is plain encouragement in the doctrine of the gospel. John xvii. 21—26. Rom. viii. 17. 2 Tim. ii. 11, 12. Rev. iii. A. and elsewhere.

These are the most glorious, the most animating hopes that can be conceived. They excite to faithfulness and zeal beyond expression. We may be made like unto Jesus Christ hereafter, if we will but follow his example, and resemble him now. But how can we admit the thought of being near to him, in the future state, who beside the merit of his obedience and sufferings here, has, in the Arian hypothesis, the glory of being employed by God in things of a quite different nature, such as creating this visible world, and all the angels, and invisible hosts of heaven?

And is not this one reason of our slothfulness, and other faults ? “ The truth is not in us: the words of Christ do not abide in us." We suffer ourselves to be deluded, and perverted from the truth and simplicity of the gospel, by the philosophical schemes of speculative men. And so, almost any man “ may take our crown,” Rev. iii. 11.

I believe, Papinian, that you, as well as other serious Christians, desire, with the apostle Paul, e to know Christ, and the power of his resurrection,” Philip. iii. 10. But what is there extraordinary in the resurrection of Christ, according to the Arian hypothesis ? Is it any thing extraordinary, that the Logos (in the Arian sense of that word) should raise the body, in which he has acter, and suffered for a while? He might be supposed to have an especial regard for that body, and be willing to make it glorious. But I do not see, that such a resurrection can so fully assure us of our own, as if we suppose Christ to be a man like unto us.

For then his resurrection is a pattern of ours. Which is the doctrine of the New Testament. 1 Cor. xv. 20—23, and the glorious argument of St. Paul. Eph. i. 17–23. Hereby we are indeed assured of our resurrection. God the Father, who gave his own Son for us, and raised him up from the dead, will, most certainly, raise up us also, as it is expressed, i Cor. iv. 14. “ Knowing that he, who raised up the Lord Jesus, should raise up us also by Jesus, and should present us with you.” And see Philip. iii. 20, 21. In a word, here is the best foundation of unmoveable confidence in God. And the apostle expressly says in the place just referred to in 1 Cor. xv. 21. “ Since by man came death, by man came also the resurrection of the dead.”

Obj. 2. Again, it may be objected, that this idea of the person of Jesus does not fully suit the strong expressions in the New Testament, concerning the love of God, in giving his Son

But I think it does. For can there be any greater love, than for that person, who is immediately sent by God, who is his ambassador, invested with all his power and authority, who is the object of the Father's especial love, and therefore his own Son, who was “ holy, harmless, and undefiled,” Heb. vii. 10, to live a mean, despised, reproached life in this world, and then to die a painful and ignominious death for our good, and for the good of mankind in general ?

Besides, this is that love of God, which is so much, and so justly magnified, and extolled in the New Testament: that God gave his Son to die for us. “ He that spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all; how shall he not with him freely give us all things?". And see before ch. v. 6—8. and 2 Cor. v. 14, 15. “ Who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver us from this present evil world, according to the will of God, even our Father.” Gal. i. 4. See likewise 1 Tim. ii. 6. 1 Pet. i. 18—21. i John iii. 16. iv. 9, 10. and many other places.

If Christ had dwelt in pre-existent glory, and had come from heaven, to animate a human body; this also would have been plainly, and frequently represented to us.

for us.

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