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ing to the spirit of the gospel.' Mr. Locke, · Joy in the gifts and benefits of the Holy Ghost * under the gospel.'
But Grotius hereby understands" a care and concern to exhilarate others, by the gifts of • the spirit.' And considers it as opposed to the grieving, offending, provoking our brother, spoken of, and cautioned against at ver. 15.
That this is the apostle's intention, appears, I think, from the whole argument in this chapter,' and in the beginning of the next, and particularly from the nearest context, both before and after. Peace is not inward quiet of mind, but peaceableness, a love and study of peace, and doing all in our power to secure and promote it. Nor does the apostle speak of the joy which we possess ourselves, but of that which we ought to give to others. So likewise Gal. v. 22. “ The fruit of the spirit is love, joy, peace, long. suffering.” Where joy is joined with other virtues and duties toward our neighbour : and cannot mean the satisfaction which we feel ourselves, but the satisfaction which we procure to others.
St. Paul then here says, • The kingdom of God does not consist in such things as meat and • drink, but in the practice of righteousness, in a love and study of peace, and care to please and
edify our brother by a mild and condescending behaviour, and discourses suited to his capacity, « according to the doctrine of the gospel, confirined by mighty works, and many miraculous gifts and powers bestowed upon believers in general.' "Therefore he offers that earnest prayer, chap. xv. 5. “Now the God of patience and consolation grant you to be like-minded according to Christ Jesus. That is according to the will and command of Christ.
14. In the twelfth chapter of the first epistle to the Corinthians the apostle has a long argument about spiritual gifts, or spiritual persons, as some understand the expression in ver. 1. Περι δε των πνευματικων. Here, undoubtedly, are some personalizing expressions. As ver. 11. “ But all these worketh that one and the self-same spirit, dividing to every one severally, as he will.” But then there are other expressions, by which he shows that by the Spirit he means a blessing, a gift, a power.
Ver. 7. “ But the manifestation of the Spirit is given to every man to profit withal:” • That is, but the plentiful effusion of spiritual gifts, with which the church of God is now
favoured, is designed for general good. And every one is to exercise his own particular gift • in the way most conducive to the advantage of his brethren in Christ.'
And ver. 13. “ For by one spirit, are we all baptized into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond or free. And have been all made to drink into one spirit.': So we translate the words: but I suppose they might be better rendered in this manner.
s For we have all been baptized with one spirit, that we might be one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond or free, and we have been all made to drink into one spirit.” All believers in Jesus Christ, of every nation and people, of every rank and condition, had received the like or selfsame spiritual gifts, that they might reckon themselves to be, and behave as one body; being all united together in love and friendship, in communion and worship. Moreover in the same context the apostle says, ver. 6. “ And there are diversities of operations: but it is the same God which worketh all in all.” And ver. 28. “ And God hath set some in the church, first apostles, secondarily prophets, thirdly teachers, after that miracles, then gifts of healing, helps, governments, diversities of tongues."
Many interpreters have supposed, that in the phrase, “ and have been all made to drink into one spirit,” the apostle alludes to the eucharistical cup. But I do not perceive any good ground for it. I think the apostle carries on the same allusion. Men were baptized with water. Re. ceiving the spirit in a plentiful effusion is called being baptized with the spirit: and the spirit is compared to water. John vii. 37–39. and see Is. xliv. 3. Joel ii. 18. and elsewhere. I think the apostle compares the Spirit, or the plentiful effusion of spiritual powers and gifts, such as
· Cura exhilarandi alios per dona spiritûs sancti, non • Και γαρ εν ενι πνευματι ημεις παντες εις εν σαμα εξαπτισ. autem eos irritandi, quod modo dixit lutely. Grot. in loc. θημενκαι παντες εις έν πνευμα εποτισθημεν.
Liniborch, in his commentary upon the epistle to the Ro- c Matt. iii. 11. “ I indeed baptize you with water :mans, largely asserts the saine sense. Beausobre likewise, in but he that cometh after me shall baptize you with the Holy a few words, finely illustrates the text after this interpretation. Ghost, and with fire.” Autos vuas Bantidai sy avaujlari you', I would also refer to Mr. Joseph Morris's sernions, published in 1743, particularly his serinons upon 1 Thess. v. 16. “Rejoice evermore."
the church of Christ was then favoured with, to a fountain or river. We have all drank at, and been refreshed out of the same fountain.
The Syriac version of the last clause of this verse is : · And we have all drank-in one spirit.' Et omnes nos unum Spiritum imbibimus. The Latin version may be also observed : Et omnes in uno Spiritu potati sumus.
15. I may take this opportunity, to consider the difficult words of the third verse of this chapter. “ Wherefore I give you to understand, that no man speaking by the Spirit of God, calleth Jesus accursed, (or anathema :] and that no man can say; that Jesus is the Lord, but by the Holy Ghost.” • That is, you may be assured, that man is not inspired, whatever pretences • he may make, who pronounces Jesus accursed. Nor can any man profess faith in Jesus, as • the Christ and Lord of all, under God the Father, and recommend that faith to others, unless • he has been himself made partaker of miraculous powers and gifts, or seen miraculous works • performed by others in the name of Jesus.' St. John speaks to the like purpose. 1 Epistle, iv. 1--3.
16. 2 Cor. iii. 17, 18. “ Now the Lord is that spirit. And where the spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty. But we all with open face beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are changed into the same image from glory to glory, even as by the spirit of the Lord.”
Or, as others choose to render it, by the Lord the spirit. However, in both is the same sense.
Dr. Whitby will assist us in explaining these words. For in his Annotations upon ver. 7-11. of this chapter, he says: • The glory of God, or of the Lord, in the Old Testament, imports a • bright light, or flame included in a cloud, styled the cloud of glory. And because this, when• ever it appeared, was a symbol of God's glorious presence, it is styled by the Jews Shechinah,
the habitation. See Ex. xvi. 7, 10. ch. xl. 31. This glory, saith the author of Cosri, is the • divine light, which God vouchsafeth to his people. By the Shechinah, says Elias, we under“stand the Holy Spirit. As it is evident they do, in these sayings: The Shechinah will not • dwell with sorrowful or melancholy men. The Shechinah will only dwell with a strong, rich, • wise, and humble man. The Shechinab dwells with the meek. And the like.'
We should now observe the nearest context, from ver. 12. Seeing then that we have such hope,” or such confidence, and well-grounded assurance, we, the apostles of Christ,
“ use great plainness of speech,” boldly preaching the pure gospel of Christ, without recommending to men the rituals of the law. Ver. 13. “ And not as Moses, who put a vail over his face"- Ver. 14. “ For until this day remaineth the vail untaken away, in the reading of the Old Testament. Which vail is done away in Christ.” Ver. 15. “ But even unto this day, when Moses is read, the vail is upon their hearts.” Ver. 16. “ Nevertheless, when it shall turn unto the Lord, the vail shall be taken away.” Ver. 17. “ Now the Lord is that spirit, and where the spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty.
Here is throughout an allusion to the history of Moses, after his receiving from God, the second time, the two tables of the law in the mount.
Ex. xxxiv. 29—34. “ And it came to pass, when Moses came down from Mount Sinaithat Moses wist not, that the skin of his face shone-And when Aaron, and all the children of Israel, saw Moses, behold the skin of his face shone. And they were afraid to come nigh him. And Moses called unto them. And Aaron, and all the rulers of the congregation returned unto him. And Moses talked with them. Afterwards all the children of Israel came nigh-And till Moses had done speaking unto them, he put a vail on his face. But when Moses went before the Lord, to speak with him, he took the vail off until he came out.”
That is what the apostle alludes to, when he says, ver. 16, 17. “Nevertheless, when it shall turn to the Lord,” that is, when the Jews shall come to Christ, and believe in him, “the vail shall be taken away.” For Moses, when he went in, to appear before the Lord, took off the vail. “ Now the Lord is that spirit.” The Lord Jesus is the glory of God: and by coming to him, we are as in the divine presence, and converse without a vail. Which is what is meant by those words: “ And where the spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty.”
Then it follows in ver. 18. • But we all with open face, beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are changed into the same image, from glory to glory, even as by the spirit of the Lord.” • But it is not now with us, as it was with the Israelites of old, who only saw the face of Moses through a vail, and received no derivation of his glory upon themselves; the bright· ness of it, having been intercepted by the vail. No, it is not so with us. For now, we all,
• both Jews and Gentiles, who are followers of Jesus, and the people of God, under the gospel.
dispensation, “ with open, (or unvailed, ] face, beholding as in a mirror the glory of the Lord, . seeing a strong and lively impression of the divine glory in the person of Jesus Christ, atid his 'gospel: and there being a bright, and clear, and strong refulgence of that glory upon us, “ we
are changed into the same image from glory to glory, as by the spirit of the Lord:” we are • transformed into the same likeness, which is continually increasing and improving. And the • impression, made upon us, is much the same, as if we were in the divine presence, and saw the *glory of God, with as near and full a manifestation, as can be admitted in the present state.'
17. 2 Cor. xiii. 14. “ The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the communion of the Holy Ghost, be with you all. Amen.”
The last clause may imply a wish, that those Christians might continue to partake in miraculous gifts and powers. But we have observed, that sometimes by the Spirit, or Holy Spirit, may be understood any good things, conducive to men's real happiness. Compare Matt. vii. 11. with Luke xi. 13. And see Eph.
i. 3. Prov. i. 23. In this place therefore we may suppose to be hereby meant a participation of, and communion in all the blessings of the gospel, and all other needful good things.
18. Eph. ii. 22. “ In whom ye also are builded for an habitation of God through the spirit."
Dr. Jeremiah Hunt shall explain the text for us. * • I think,' says he, there is an expression made use of in respect to all believers in the first
“ Ye are the habitation of God through the spirit.” We, Christians, are the habitation of God's Shechinah, the people, among whom God dwells. He dwelt as a political king with • the Jews, by a sensible symbol of his presence. He dwelt with Christian societies (when this • doctrine was first planted) by those extraordinary gifts of the spirit. That is spoken of, in such • terms, as are made use of, to express God's inhabiting among the people of Israel
. He dwelt • with the Jews in the tabernacle, and the temple. He dwelt with Christians, in the first esta•blishment of this religion, by the extraordinary gifts, which he imparted to the apostles, who “were to found his doctrine, and to establish it. Thus far, you see, we are free from enthusiasm.'
• I would farther observe, Christ promiseth those who believe in him, and keep his com«mandments, that he would love them, and that his Father would love them, and that they would •come, and make their abode with them. John xiv. 21, 23. These expressions have been used
in a wrong sense by enthusiasts. But the phrases are scriptural, and easy to be understood. "“ I will come, and dwell with you.” There is a reference to the Shechinah, the divine glory.
By the spiritual gifts, which the Father has given me power to confer, I will induce you to « believe in me. You will then become the habitation of my Father. He will have communion • or society with you, by those gifts, which he will enable me to impart, and by which that doctrine shall be confirmed, and established.'
There are divers other texts, where Christians are spoken of as the temple of God through the spirit. And in all of them there is an allusion to the presence of God among the Jewish people, and in the temple at Jerusalem.
1.) 1 Cor. iii. 16, 17. “ Know ye not, that ye are the temple of God, and that the Spirit. of God dwelleth in you. If any man defile the temple of God, him shall God destroy. For the temple of God is holy, which ye are.”
2.) i Cor. vi. 19. “What, know ye not, that your body is the temple of the Holy Ghost, which ye have of God!"
3.) 2 Cor. vi. 16. “ And what agreement hath the temple of God with idols ? For ye are the temple of the living God: as God hath said: I will dwell in them, and walk in them: and I will be their God, and they shall be my people.” See Lev. xxvi. 11, 12.
I would observe, that in the second of these three texts the apostle seems to speak of the spirit, as a gift: which, says he, ye have of God. Grotius says, that the Holy Ghost here is the same as the Shechinah. I shall place his note below.
* See his Sermon upon Communion with God: on i John i. 6, 7. vol. III. p. 426, 427.
Spiritus Sanctus' hic idem quod Shekinah [ Numen Divinum') in templo. Totus homo templum Dei,' supra iii, 16, 17. Sed adytum' est mens hominis : animi cæter a
partes · basilica templi:' corpus vero 'portions,' cum subdialibus. Bene hunc locum explicat Tertullianus libro de Cultu Feminarum altero: ‘Cum omnes templum simius Dei,
illato in nos et consecralo Spiritu Sancto, ejus templi editua et antistita Pudicitia est, quæ nihil immundum ac profanun ejectiones dæmonum, certos reddebant credentes, de paternâ * Vos euina estis templum Dei vivi.') Templum est, ubi Dei in se benevolentià. Grot. in Eph. 1. 13.
the third, the last cited text, “ye are the temple of the living God,” he says: • Where a God dwells, there is a temple. God dwells in good men by his spirit. They there. • fore are the temple of God. Nor is it without reason added • living. For the gods of the • heathen were dead men.' 19. The commonness of spiritual gifts, and the ends and uses of them appear from many texts.
1.) Eph. i. 13. In whom “ye also trusted, after tnat ye heard the word of truth, the gospel of
your salvation: in whom also after that ye believed, ye were sealed with that Holy Spirit of promise :” or, with that Holy Spirit, which had been promised.
Upon which text Mr. Locke remarks in these words: · The Holy Ghost was neither pro'mised, nor given to the heathens, who were apostates from God, and enemies, but only to the people of God. And therefore the converted Ephesians having received it, might be assured Thereby, that they were now the people of God, and might rest satisfied in this pledge of it.'
2.) Eph. ii. 18. “ For through him we both have access by one spirit unto the Father.” • For through him we are all encouraged in our access to the Father, and are persuaded of our
acceptance with him: the like miraculous gifts, which can come from God only, having been • bestowed equally upon Jews and Gentiles.
3.) Eph. iv. 30. “ And grieve not the Holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed unto the day of redemption:" or rather, wherewith ye were sealed in the day of redemption.
The miraculous gifts and powers bestowed upon the Christian church, in its early days, enumerated in several places. Rom. xii. 6—8. 1 Cor. xii. 1-11. 28–30. xiii. 1, 2. xiv. Eph. iv. 11, 12. And see Eph. v. 18—20. Col. iii. 16. 1 Thess. v. 19-21.
These gifts and powers, bestowed upon the apostles, and others, soon after our Lord's ascension, vindicated them, and justified their preaching in his name, and enabled them to do it with
The pouring out of such gifts upon Cornelius, and his company, in an extraordinary manner, immediately from heaven, satisfied the apostles, that Gentiles might be received into the church, as God's people, upon faith in Jesus Christ, without taking upon them the observation of the rituals of the law of Moses. Acts x. 41-48. xi. 15-18.
And gifts of the spirit were bestowed upon many with the imposition of the hands of the apostles. Which afforded great comfort to them, as it satisfied them, that they were received by God, as his people and children. This appears in several texts. Some more of which shall be here alleged.
4.) Rom. i. 11. “ For I long to see you, that I may impart unto you some spiritual gift, to the end you may be established.” Comp. xv. 29.
5.) Rom. v. 5. “ And hope maketh not ashamed, because the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy Ghost, which is given to us.”
6.) Rom. viii. 15—17. “ For ye have received the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry: Abba, Father. The Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirits, that we are the children of God. And if children, then heirs, heirs of God, and joint heirs with Christ.” See also ver. 23. And compare Gal. iv. 5—7.
7.) 1 Cor. vi. 11. “ And such were some of you. But ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, and by the Spirit of our God.” • That • is, ye have been cleansed, and sanctified by the doctrine of Christ, and have been fully assured of your acceptance with God, by the spiritual gifts conferred upon you.'
8.) 2 Cor. i. 21, 22. “ Now he which establisheth us with you, in Christ, and has anointed us, is God. Who has also sealed us, and given the earnest of his Spirit in our hearts.
9.) 2 Cor. xi. 4. For, if he that cometh to you, preacheth another Jesus, whom we have not preached: or, if ye receive another Spirit, which ye have not received: or another gospel, which ye have not accepted, ye might well bear with him.”
• inferri sinat, ne Deus ille, qui inhabitat, inquinatam sedem Deus habitat. In piis habitat Deus per Spiritum Sanctum. offensus derelinquat.'
Sunt igitur templum Dei. Idem sensus i Cor. iii. 17. et vi. Oj Eyere aro bev.] Spiritus ille a Deo est molto magis 19. Nec frustra addidit (Witos, quia dii gentium erant hoquam splendor ille, qui apparebat interdum inter Cherubinos. mines mortui. Grot. in loc. Constructio est Græca, quæ, relativo prononini dat casum Sic et dona illa Dei, puta prophetiæ., sanationes, linguæ, præcedentem. Grot. in loc.
By “ another spirit” the apostle cannot mean another intelligent agent : but must mean greater and more excellent spiritual gifts, than those which had been imparted to the Corinthians by himself. Mr. Locke's paraphrase is in these words : • Or, if you have received from him (the intruder) other, or greater gifts of The Spirit, than those you have received from me.' See 1 Cor. xii.
10.) Gal. iii. 2. “ This only would I learn of you. Received ye the Spirit by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith?” This is paraphrased by Mr. Locke after this manner. This • one thing I desire to know of you. Did you receive the miraculous gifts of the Spirit by the • works of the law, or by the gospel preached to you ??.
11.) Ver. 5. “ Ile therefore that ministereth to you the Spirit, and worketh miracles among you, doth he it by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith?” Here again Mr. Locke's paraphrase is this; • The gifts of the Holy Ghost that have been conferred upon you, have they not been • conferred upon you as Christians, professing faith in Jesus Christ, and not as observers of the Jaw? And hath not he, who has conveyed these gifts to you, and done miracles among you, • dom it as a preacher and professor of the gospel ?
By all which texts we see, how common spiritual gifts were in the churches of Christ. St. Paul, in Eph. : 13. cited just now, useth the expression, " that holy Spirit of promise." Our Lord's own words ara. « And behold, I send the promise of my father upon you,” Luke xxiv. 49. Again, “ He comimoled them, that they should not depart from Jerusalem, but wait for the promise of the Father: Whiah, said he, ye have heard of me,” Acts i. 4. And see ch. ii. 33.
Indeed the promise of the spirit was made to all believers in general, and not to apostles only: though to them especially, and in a greater rneasure, than to others. The promise of the spirit is delivered by Jesus himself, by his forerunner, and by the ancient prophets, as the great blessing of the evangelical dispensation, or the privilege of the times of the Messiah.
Says our Lord's forerunner, “ I baptize you with water-He shall baptize with the Holy Ghost, and with fire,” Matt. iii. 11. Comp. Acts i. 5. ch.. xi. 16. Our Lord says, John vii. 38, 39. “ He that believeth on me, as the scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers. of living water"- And, adds the evangelist : “ This he spake of the Spirit, which they that believe on him should receive." And Mark xvi. 17, 18. « These signs shall follow them that believe.”. In my name shall they cast out dæmons. They shall speak with new tongues. They shall take up serpents. And if they drink any deally thing, it shall not hurt them. They shall lay hands on the sick, and they shall recover. For the promises of the Old Testament, I need now refer only to Acts ii. 16–18. And St. Peter, directing and comforting those who were much affected with his first discourse after Christ's ascension," said unto them: Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ, for the remission of sins." And he shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost. For the promise is to you, and to your children, and to all that are afar off
, even as many as the Lord our God shall call,” ch. ii. 38, 39. Again : “ And we are his witnesses of these things. And so also is the Holy Ghost, which God has given: to them that obey him,” ver. 32..
20. I shall here put together some of those texts, which contain exhortations to such as were partakers of the Holy Ghost, or had been favoured with spiritual gifts.
1.) Eph. iv. 30. “ And grieve not the Holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed unto the day of redemption.” Or, “ with which ye were sealed in the day of redemption.” This text.
. was quoted before, upon another account.
Here may be a reference to Is. Ixiii. 10. “ By the spirit of God” the apostle means those powers and gifts with which those Christians had been sealed ; and by which they miglit be known, both to themselves and others, to be the people of God.. See "Eph. i. 13, 14. In the preceding and following verses the apostle cautions the Ephesians to avoid every thing, by which God might be offended, and provoked to withhold his gracious iniluences, or to withdraw from them the gifts that had been bestowed upon them. “Let no corrupt communication proceed out of your mouth-- Let all bitterness, and wrath, and anger, and clamour, and evil-speaking, be put away from you, with all malice.”
• H aysuma repor aapbaveti, ó ox xaabeta. Aut si is vobis potiora dona Spiritus conferre potuit, quam nos per ma
nuum impositionem vobis contulimus. Grot. in loe.