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purchasers or of sufficient materials, I am ignorant'; but being desirous to contribute in both cases to the continuance of yours, I have committed to paper some thoughts which lately occurred to me in reading relative to an unexplained medal of Mark Anthony and Cleopatra, a type of which is given in the fifth tom. of the Histoire de l'Academie of the 12mo. edition, at p. 256; having on the obverse the head of M. Anthony, with this legend, M. ΑΝΤΩΝΙΟΣ AYIOKRATOR OIΩNIΣ. THE TRION ANARAN, and on the reverse the head of Cleopatra with this legend, ΚΛΕΟΠΑΤRΑΣ ΟΣΣΑΝ ΣΩΤΗRAΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΙΣΣΗΣ. The authors of that article, in 1731, M. Bonhier and De Boze, seem to be quite at a loss for the meaning of OEEAN on the reverse; and by their account it should seem, that no satisface tory explanation had been given of it by any former antiquaries, although it had been published by Goltzius, Tristan, Occo, Nonnius, Spanheim, and Vaillant; for Bonhier says, “ that certainly it

that certainly it is not easy to explain ;” and De Boze adds, “ that every thing which has been urged in justify the epithet Oorar has so little foundation, that it can be only ascribed to an error in the artist." They contend indeed further, that there is a doubt of its being genuine, or else if it be genuine, whether it has been rightly read : but against both these suppositions they themselves urge, that Occo has published a second medal likewise, with a similar legend, except that Barillova occurs at the beginning of it instead of the end, and is in the nominative, not the genitive case. I shall not enter further into their account, nor do I know whether any later writers have given any more satisfactory explanation


of the legends on this medal, or attempted it; therefore shall confine myself to my own opinion concerning it. It seems then to me to have been struck in some city of Persia, or some city in Asia, where an oriental language was chiefly in use, and but little knowledge of Greek; apparently soon after Anthony's expedition, against Parthia, in which Cleopatra accompanied bim part of the way; for OELAN, or as it may be better Jivided, 'O. 2. EAN, seems to be an abbreviation of the common Persian title Schak-Schapin, the king of kings; which although here applied to a female, yet as it is the title of males, therefore the masculine article, has been prefixed to it, as the rest of the legend is in Greek: that Greek was not perfectly understood where it was struck seems confirmed by the word σωτηρα, which should rather be σωτειρα ; and so Bonhier says, that Scaliger has writ the legend in his notes on Eusebius; another similar erroneous use of a vowel occurs, I conceive, on the obverse. As to Schah-Schahin, Hyde, I believe, was the first author who has explained it, where it occurs in Manellinus

! Amici Saporem appellabant Achemenem :" vera autem lectio in ultima editione jam restituta est Ezav Saxy, nempe Schahan Schâh est regum-rex." Rel. Pers. p. 416. This was thirty years before the abovementioned dissertation. By this it appears, that even the Romans were no strangers to the title. Reland also, in 1706, had observed “Hin pronuntiatione persarum vix auditur ut in Saạn saa pro Schaban Schah.” Diss. de ling. Pers. p. 227. Bayer, in his Histor. Bactr. says “EA in nummo Phraartis meo judicio neque urbem neque moạitarium significat sed


19. 2.

ΣΑΝΣΑ: similiter in nummo Pharmacig. Βασιλεως μεγαλoν Φαρνακου ΣΣΑΝ, malo legere ΣΑΝΣΑΝ quam cum Patino DESAN vel cum Spanheimo refingere Barthews Baoinewy, in tom 1. 487 de usu. numism." P. 102. By this it appears that the word occurs also on a Parthian coin, where Bayer has given us its true meaning. While by the word refingere Spanheim seems to have thought OCEAN an erroneous reading by Patin for Βασιλεων. I am not able to refer to the very words of Spanheim, but here we find both the right reading and meaning of the title, with the article ö in like manner prefixed, clearly ascertained by Patin and Bayer, which seem to have perplexed all the other antiquaries. Bayer adds, in p. 105, that Plutarch mentions Anthony's giving to Cleopatra and her sons, after the conquest of Parthia, the title of Badsdels Bariswy, in Antonio; moreover that in Vaillant another coin has the legend Cleopatræ reginæ regum. Bayer does not however appear to have known of the medal in question with the oriental title OSAN applied to Cleopatra, otherwise he would not have thought that Patin had read the word erroneously with an o prefixed on the Parthian coin; which however proves, that it was no unusual thing to abbreviate the title in this manner, even among orientals themselves, although the examples of it may now be scarce. The Greck a had the sound if not of aw yet at least of ar; and Reland has accounted for the omission of the aspirates when expressed in Greek letters, since they were but little heard even in Persian itself. This abbreviation may account likewise for what we read in Hesychius, who says, that Zay means Zevo, and Zandes means nyeporides. Here an annotator on Hesychius

conjectures, eonjectures, that it is formed from Zavy, 27, Z37; but the sense of *7*4ovides leads us to a better derivation; for what connection in sense is there between vivens and Jupiter? but gubernator has a near connection with the God of gods; the name was therefore rather an imitation of the foreign word Zaan. That it had been naturalized as well as understood in some Greek cities is further confirmed by Pausanias : for he says, that at Elis “Sunt aliquot ænea Jovis simulachra; appellantur ea patria voce Zanes.” Lib. 5. Now if the name had been formed from 2any so universal among the Greeks, it would have scarcely been so peculiar to the natives of Elis as to deserve being stigmatized as a provincial word in that city (patria voce); it was therefore rather the oriental word Zaan, which had by accident been naturalized there, though not universally in Greece. Neither is there any thing extraordinary in the oriental word Schahan Schal being thus abbreviated and disguised when pronounced or written in Greek letters, if we attend to similar adulterations of oriental words in modern languages, and even relative to the word in question. Thus Bayer says, in the same page above, “ Persarum reges dicti sunt, sicut nunc Padi-Schah, ab Indis Pad scha, ita olim Schalin Schah." This, I presume, is the same name which the English now give to the chief minister of the Marattas in India, and generally spelt Peshwa, while the French write it Pecheva: the origin also apparently of the Turkish word Pacha and Bashaw, thus otherwise distinguished by foreigners, secms to be the same.

As to the legend on the obverse of the medal in question, the French dissertation says nothing of its explication, nor have I myself any opportunity to consult


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concerning it the other antiquaries, above mentioned, who published the medal; but there must evidently be some difficulty concerning the word or words OINNIĘTHE, &c. Now as the horizontal line on the top of the third letter of ATIOKRAT.C2R is worn out so that T is changed into I, I suppose that the case has been the same with the second letter above, which should be a T; and thus those letters form o των ιστης τριων ανδρων, which I presume mean, that Anthony was the staff of the triumvirate, the artist having writ sot for latos, just as on the reverse we found any formed instead of Et,

which becomes another proof of a foreign artist. Iotos means a mast of a ship, also a distaff, or the rod on which wool or hemp is hung, in order for the spinner to draw out threads from it, stamina ; it therefore naturally coincides in sense here with our own use of the word staff in such a case. Any further information from others on these subjects would be very acceptable, as books are so numerous and so expensive that few can obtain them.



ART. XXIII. Literary Intelligence.

I am induced by the desire of some friends to enlarge the article of Literary Intelligence, which I have hitherto given occasionally. As my work is principally addressed to readers, whose love of bibliography must necessarily make such information grateful to them, I readily comply with the suggestion; which I am enabled to do by the promise of assistance in this department, without which my absence from the capital, and my retired habits, would render it impos

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