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Humboldt library of science. no. 130 | pt. 1, 1890, 130. sayı,1. bölüm
Metin Parçacığı görünümü - 1879
80 cents action admitted amount animal appear applicable become believe benefit called character claim common concerned conduct connected consider considerations constitutes Contents depend desire direct distinction doctrine Double number duty Effects Electric equally Essays ethics evidence evil existence expediency fact faculties feeling fellow force give greater ground happiness higher History human hurt idea Illustrated important included individual influence injustice interest justice kind least less mankind maxims means mental mind mode moral motive nature necessary notion object obligation opinion Origin pain particular person philosophy physical pleasure possible practice preference present principle of utility proof punishment question reason recognize regard Religion requires rule sanctions SCIENCE SCIENTIFIC sense sentiment social society sources SPENCER standard superior supposed term theory things thought tion true ultimate University unjust utilitarian utility violate virtue whole wrong
Sayfa 11 - The creed which accepts as the foundation of morals, Utility, or the Greatest Happiness Principle, holds that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness.
Sayfa 20 - They say it is exacting too much to require that people shall always act from the inducement of promoting the general interests of society. But this is to mistake the very meaning of a standard of morals, and confound the rule of action with the motive of it.
Sayfa 57 - As every other maxim of justice, so this, is by no means applied or held applicable universally; on the contrary, as I have already remarked, it bends to every person's ideas of social expediency. But in whatever case it is deemed applicable at all, it is held to be the dictate of justice. All persons are deemed to have a right to equality of treatment, except when some recognised social expediency requires the reverse.
Sayfa 13 - ... a sense of dignity, which all human beings possess in one form or other, and in some, though by no means in exact, proportion to their higher faculties, and which is so essential a part of the happiness of those in whom it is strong that- nothing which conflicts with it could be otherwise than momentarily an object of desire to them.
Sayfa 19 - I must again repeat, what the assailants of utilitarianism seldom have the justice to acknowledge, that the happiness which forms the utilitarian standard of what is right in conduct is not the agent's own happiness, but that of all concerned; as, between his own happiness and that of others, utilitarianism requires him to be as strictly impartial as a disinterested and benevolent spectator. In the golden rule of Jesus of Nazareth, we read the complete spirit of the ethics of utility. To do as you...
Sayfa 32 - The deeply rooted conception which every individual even now has of himself as a social being tends to make him feel it one of his natural wants that there should be harmony between his feelings and aims and those of his fellow-creatures.
Sayfa 37 - ... desiring a thing and finding it pleasant, aversion to it and thinking of it as painful, are phenomena entirely inseparable, or rather two parts of the same phenomenon ; in strictness of language, two different modes of naming the same psychological fact : that to think of an object as desirable (unless for the sake of its consequences), and to think of it as pleasant, are one and the same thing ; and that to desire anything, except in proportion as the idea of it is pleasant, is a physical and...
Sayfa 34 - Whatever may be the opinion of utilitarian moralists as to the original conditions by which virtue is made virtue, however they may believe (as they do) that actions and dispositions are only virtuous because they promote another end than virtue...
Sayfa 25 - The remainder of the stock arguments against utilitarianism mostly consist in laying to its charge the common infirmities of human nature, and the general difficulties which embarrass conscientious persons in shaping their course through life. We are told that a utilitarian will be apt to make his own particular case an exception to moral rules, and, when under temptation, will see a utility in the breach of a rule, greater than he will see in its observance. But is utility the only creed which is...