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Now, heaven thee save, thou reverend friar;
I pray thee tell to me
My true love thou did see.
From any other one?
And by his sandal-shoon.
O lady, he is dead and gone,
And at his heels a stone.
Thy rorrow is in vain ; For violets plucked, the sweetest showers
Will ne'er make grow again. Yet stay, fair lady, rest awhile,
Beneath yon cloister wall : See through the hawthorn blows the wind,
And drizzling rain doth fall.
O stay me not I pray,
Can wash my fault away.
" - to MAN MY HAGGARD"-To tame my hawk. In the technical language of hawking, to watch or wake, was one of the means of taming, by preventing sleep. To bate is to flutter.
SCENE II. " An ancient ANGEL coming down the hill”—“For “angel,' Theobald, and after him, Hanmer and Warburton, read engle; which Hanmer calls a gull, deriving it from engluer, Fr., to catch with bird-lime; but without sufficient reason. Mr. Gifford, in a note on Jonson's * Poetaster,' is decidedly in favour of enghle, with Hanmer's explanation, and supports it by referring to Gascoigne’s ‘Supposes,' from which Shakespeare took this part of his plot : There Erostrato (the Biondello of Shakespeare) looks out for a person to gull by an idle story; judges from appearances that he has found him, and is not deceived :- At the foot of the hill I met a gentleman, and, as methought by his habits and his looks, he should be none of the wisest.' Again : this gentleman, being, as I guessed at the first, a man of small sapientia.' And Dulippo, (the Lucentio of Shakespeare,) as soon as he spies him coming, exclaims: • Is this he? go meet him: by my troth, HE LOOKS LIKE A GOOD SOUL; he that fisheth for him might be sure to catch a codshead.'- Act ii, scene 1. These are the passages,' says Mr. Gifford, ' which our great Poet had in view; and these, I trust, are more than sufficient to explain why Biondello concludes, at first sight, that this ancient piece of formality' will serve his turn. This is very true; and yet it is not necessary to change the reading of the old copy, which is undoubtedly correct, though the commentators could not explain it. An ancient angel,' then, was neither more nor less than the good soul of Gascoigne; or, as Cotgrave (often the best commentator on Shakespeare) explains it:-AN OLD angel, by metapbor, a fellow of 'th' old sound honest and worthie stamp-un angelot à gros escaille.' One who, being honest himself, suspects no guile in others, and is therefore easily duped." I am quite of Mr. Nares's opinion, that enghie is only a different spelling of ingle, which is often used for a farourite, and originally meant one of the most detestable kind: we have no example adduced of its ever having been used for a gull.”—SINGER.
"Master, a mercatante," etc.—Marcantant is the word given in the old folio ; “mercatante” is the Italian for merchant: Biondello did not know whether he was a merchant or a pedant. * Mercatantè" is the amendment of Stevens.
“ Nor never needed that I should ent reat”—This line (by mere typographical carelessness) is omitted in “Malone's SHAKESPEARE," by Boswell, and in very many of the best editions since 1803, when it was first dropped in Reed's edition of Johnson and Stevens's text.
The omission has been corrected in Knight's “ Pictorial,” and in some other modern editions.
“No, no, forsooth; I dare not, for my life.” “We subjoin the parallel scene from the old play :
* Enter SANDER and his Mistress. San. Come, mistress.
Kate. Sander, I prithee help me to some meat, I am so faint that I can scarcely stand.
San. Ay, marry, mistress, but you know my master has given me a charge that you must eat nothing, but that which he himself giveth you.
Kate. Why, man, thy master needs never know it. San. You say true, indeed. Why look you, mistress, what say you to a piece of beef and mustard now?
Kate. Why, I say 'tis excellent meat; canst thou help me to some ?
San. Ay, I could help you to some, but that I doubt the mustard is too choleric for you.
But what say you to a sheep's head and garlic ?
Kate. Why, anything, I care not what it be. San. Ay, but the garlic I doubt will make your breath stink, and then my master will curse me for letting you eat it. But what say you to a fat capon ?
Kate. That's meat for a king, sweet Sander, help me to some of it.
San. Nay, by'rlady! then 'tis too dear for us; we must not meddle with the king's meat.
Kate. Out, villain ! dost thou mock me? Take that for thy sauciness.
[She beats him.' Grey has been hastily betrayed into a remark, upon this scene in Shakespeare, which is singularly opposed to his usual accuracy:- This seems to be borrowed from Cervantes's account of Sancha Panza's treatment by his physician, when sham governor of the island of Barataria.' The first part of Don Quixote' was not published till 1605; and our Poet unquestionably took the scene from the old • Taming of a Shrew,' which was published in 1594."-Knight.
" — is sorted to no PROOF"-i. e. Approof, or approbation.
“--his RUFFLING treasure"-Pope changed this to rustling. Ruffing' was familiar to the Elizabethan literature. In Lily's
Euphues” we have, “Shall I ruffle in new devices, with chains, with bracelets, with rings, with robes ?" In Ben Jonson's "Cynthia's Revels," we find, “ Lady, I cannot ruffle it in red and yellow."
“ Come, tailor, let us see these ornaments." The imitation by Shakespeare of the scene in the old play, in which the Shrew is tried to the utmost by her husband's interference with her dress, is closer than in almost any other part. The "face not me," and
brave not me," of Grumio, are literal transcripts of the elder jokes. In the speech of Petruchio after the Tailor is driven out, we have three lines taken, with the slightest alteration, from the following :
Come, Kate, we now will go see thy father's house,
Our purses shall be rich, our garments plain. And yet how superior in spirit and taste is the rifaci. mento!
“ Enter FERANDO and Kate, and SANDER. San. Master, the haberdasher has brought my mis tress home her cap.
Fer. Come hither, sirrah: what have you there?
Kate. What if I did? Come hither, sirrah, give me the cap; I'll see if it will fit me.
[She sets it on her head. Fer. O monstrous! why, it becomes thee not: Let me see it, Kate. Here, sirrah, take it hence, This cap is out of fashion quite.
Kate. The fashion is good enough: belike you mean to make a fool of me.
Fer. Why, true, he means to make a fool of thee, To have thee put on such a curtal'd cap. Sirrah, begone with it.
Enter the Tailor with a Goron. San. Here is the tailor, too, with my mistress' gown.
Fer. Let me see it, tailor: what, with cuts and jags ? Zounds, thou villain, thou hast spoiled the gown!
Tailor. Why, sir, I made it as your man gave me direction. You may read the note here.
Fer. Come hither, sirrah. Tailor, read the note.
Tailor. And a large trunk sleeve.
San. Master, if ever 1 said loose bodied gown, sew me in a seam, and beat me to death with a bottom of brown thread.
Tailor. I made it as the note bade me.
the note lies in his throat, an thou too an thou sayest it.
Tailor. Nay, nay, ne'er be so hot, sirrah, for I fear
San. Dost thou hear, Tailor, thou hast braved many men: brave not me. Thou hast faced many men
Tailor. Well, Sir?
San. Face not me: I'll neither be faced nor braved at thy hands, I can tell thee.
Kate. Come, come, I like the fashion of it well enough;
“A custard-coffin”-A coffin, (says Stevens,) was the ancient culinary term for the raised crust of a pie or custard.
"— A CENSER in a barber's shop"-Stevens tells us that these “ censers" were like modern brasiers. They were probably curiously ornamented.
" - take thou the bill, give me thy METE-YARD, and spare not me''-"
The joke intended is lost, unless we rememb
that · bill' meant either a piece of paper, or, a weapon such as was carried by watchmen, etc., in the time of Shakespeare. On the title-page of Decker's
Lanthorne and Candle-light,' quarto, (1609,) is a representation of a watchman armed with a bill.'"-COLL.
“ Exeunt Tailor And HABERDASHER"-Collier was the first editor who took pity on the haberdasher, and dismissed him from the stage, for his exit is not mentioned in any prior edition. He had, perhaps, stood trembling by, after producing the cap.
After this cxeunt (conclusion of scene 3,) the characters, before whom the play is supposed to be exhibited, were introduced, from the old play, by Mr. Pope, in his edition:
Lord. Who's within here [Enter Servants.] Asleep again?
(They bear off SLIE. Johnson thought the fifth act should begin here.
SCENE V. “Good lord! how bright and goodly shines the moo
We follow Knight's example in going on with more striking scenes from the old play. The incide. are literally copied by Shakespeare, and although ! poetic imagery substituted in the improved play ! more truth and spirit, yet there is some splendour (ho ever overloaded) in the more elaborate passages of t original, so that, indeed, Pope thought them worth tracting and preserving in his edition, as “ seeming have been from the hand of Shakespeare himself," as part anthor even of the earlier play. " Fer. Come, Kate, the moon shines clear to-nigh
Fer. Yet again, come back again, it shall be
Kate. Why, I'll say as you say; it is the moon.
Enter the Duke of Cestus, alone.
stay, here's some, it may be, travels thither;
young and affable,
Duke. I think the man is mad; he calls me a woman
Kate. Fair, lovely lady, bright and crystalline
“ I know, it is THE MOON" _“The repetition by Katharine is most characteristic of her humbled deportment. Stevens strikes out the moon,' and says “ the old copy redundantly reads,' etc."-Knight.
" — seemeth green"-" This is another proof of Shakespeare's accurate observation of all natural phenomena. When one has been long in the sunshine, the surrounding objects will often appear tinged with green. Tbe reason is assigned by writers on optics."-SINGER.
SCENE IV. “I cannot tell, EXPECT they are busied about a counterfeit assurance"- The first folio reads “
expect," which is changed to except in the later editions.
“ Expect" is here used, as frequently by old authors, in what is now its Yankee sense, i. e. Believe, think, that they are busied, etc.
Here, in the old play, (conclusion of scene 4.,) the tinker speaks again :
Slie. Sim, must they be married now?
Enter FERANDO and SANDER.
ACT V.-SCENE I.
Why, sir, what 'cerns it you"— Thus the folio of
" While counterfeit SUPPOS Es blear'd thine eyne" early works, (in which no such familiarity with Italy is This may be an allusion to Gascoigne's comedy, en manifest,) but belongs to the period of the MERCHANT titled “Supposes," from which several of the incidents OF VENICE:were borrowed. Gascoigne's original was Ariosto's “ I Suppositi.” The word “supposes" was often used by
“This comedy was entirely rewritten from an older
one by an unknown hand, with some, but not many, Shakespeare's contemporaries; one instance, from Dray
additions to the fable. It should first be observed that ton's epistle of King John to Matilda may suffice:
in the older comedy, which we possess, the scene is laid And tell me those are shadows and supposes.
in and near Athens, and that Shakespeare removed it To "blear the eye” anciently signified to deceive, to to Padua and its neighbourhood; an unnecessary change, cheat. The reader will remember Milton's,
if he knew no more of one country than of the other. -spells
** The dramatis personæ next attract our attention. Of power to cheat the cye with blear illusions.
Baptista is no longer erroneously the name of a woman,
as in HAMLET, but of a man. All the other names, ex“ My cake is dough”-A proverbial expression, when any disappointment was sustained. Gremio has already adapted to the English ear.
cept one, are pure Italian, though most of them are
Biondello, the name of a * our cake's dough on both sides," more emphatically boy, seems chosen with a knowledge of the language,–
as it signifies a little fair-haired fellow. Even the shrew to indicate how completely expectation had failed.
has the Italian termination to her name, Katharina.
The exception is Curtis, Petruchio's servant, seemingly SCENE II.
the housekeeper at his villa; which, as it is an insignifi*TRANIO, BIONDELLO, Grumio, and others, attend cant part, may have been the name of the player; bui, ng"— According to the old stage-direction, “ the servig
more probably, it is a corruption of Cortese. men with Tranio bring in a banquet.” A banquet, as
“Act I, Scene I. A Public Place. For an open Sterens observes, properly meant what we now call a
place or a square in a city, this is not a home-bred exdessert, though often taken generally for a feast; and
pression. It may be accidental: yet it is a literal transto this Lucentio refers when he says
lation of una piazza publica, exactly what was meant
for the scene.
" The opening of the comedy, which speaks of Lom
bardy and the University of Padua, might have been ** Hare at you for a better jest or two"-So the old written by a native Italian:copies; but Capell suggested "bilter jest or two," and
Tranio, since—for the great desire I had he has been usually followed. Petruchio means “a
To see fair Padua, nursery of arts, better jest or two" than Bianca's last, about “ head and
I am arrived for fruitful Lombardy, born."
The pleasant garden of great Italy. - rll renture so much of my hawk," etc.—“So all
Here let us breathe, and happily institute
A course of learning, and ingenious studies. the old copies. The modern editors, objecting to Shakespeare's phraseology, have uniformly represented him
“The very next line I found myself involuntarily reto have written on my hawk,' etc."-COLLIER.
peating, at the sight of the grave countenances within
the walls of Pisa :" Then vail your stomachs”-i. e. Lower, or abate
Pisa, renowned for grave citizens. your pride.
They are altogether a grave people, in their demeanour, “ – though you hit the white"-to “hit the white"
their history, and their literature, such as it is. I never is a phrase borrowed from archery; the "white" being met with the anomaly of a merry Pisan. Curiously the centre of the target.
enough, this line is repeated, word for word, in the
fourth act. “ Exeunt"— The old play continues thus:
* Lucentio says, his father came of the Bentivolii :' Then enter two, bearing Slie in his own apparel againe, and this is an old Italian plural ; a mere Englishman would
Leares him where they found him, and then goes out ; then enters write of the Bentivolios. Besides, there was, and is, the Tapster.
a branch of the Bentivolii in Florence, where Lucentio Tapeter. Now that the darksome night is overpast,
says he was brought up. And dawning day appears in christall skie,
“But these indications, just at the commencement of Now must I haste abroade: but softe! who's this? What Shei o wondrous! hath he laine heere all night?
the play, are not of great force. We now come to someIle wake him ; I think he's starved by this,
thing more important; a remarkable proof of his having But that his belly was so stufft with ale :
been aware of the law of the country in respect to the What now, Slie ? awake for shame. Slie. (Araking.) Sim, give's more wine.-What all the players
betrothment of Katharina and Petruchio, of which there gone!--Am I not a lord ?
is not a vestige in the older play. The father gives her Tap. A lord, with a murrain ! come, art thou drunk still? hand to him, both parties consenting, before two wit
Slie. Who's this? Tapster ?-Oh I have had the bravest dream nesses, who declare themselves such, to the act. Such that ever thou heard'st in all thy life. Tap. Yea, marry, but thou hadst best get thee home, for your
a ceremony is as indissoluble as that of marriage, unless wife will curse you for dreaming here all night.
both parties should consent to annul it. The betrothSlie. Will she? I know how to lame a shreio. I dreamt upon it ment takes place in due form, exactly as in many of all this night, and thou hast wak'd me out of the best dream that Goldoni's comedies :ever I had; but I'll to my wife, and tame her too, if she anger me.
Give me your hands;
Gre, and Tra. Amen! say we; we will be witnesses. Mr. Brown's remarks on this play, as a comedy bearing | Instantly Petruchio addresses them as father and wise ;' the “* peculiar feature and stamp" of Italy, are very cu because, from that moment, he possesses the legal power rious, and show that if Shakespeare did not actually visit of a husband over her, saving that of taking her to his Italy (according to Mr. Brown's supposition) some time own house. Unless the betrothment is understood in between the composition of the earlier ROMEO AND JU this light, we cannot account for the father's so tamely LIET and the date of the MERCHANT OF VENICE, and the yielding afterwards to Petruchio’s whim of going in his remodelling of this play:—he had certainly, in that inter mad attire' with her to the church. Authority is no val, become very familiar with the scenery, manners, longer with the father; in vain he hopes and requests customs, and cities of Italy, through some other source. the bridegroom will change his clothes; Petruchio is They serve also to strengthen the conclusion to which peremptory in his lordly will and pleasure, which he the internal evidence of style had led my mind, as to could not possibly be, without the previous Italian bethe date of this piece; that it was not one of his very trothment.
“Padua lies between Verona and Venice, at a suitable the intuitive knowledge of genius,) in opposition to her distance from both, for the conduct of the comedy. ladyship’s opinion, I beg leave to quote Dr. Johnson : Petruchio, after being securely betrothed, sets off for Shakespeare, however favoured by nature, could imVenice, the very place for finery, to buy •rings and part only what he had learned. With this text as our things, and fine array for the wedding; and, when mar guide, it behooves us to point out how he could obtain ried, he takes her to his country-house, in the direction such an intimate knowledge of facts, without having of Verona, of which city he is a native. All this is com- been, like Lady Morgan, an eye-witness to them. pleta ; and in marked opposition to the worse than mis “ In addition to these instances, the whole comedy takes in the Two GENTLEMEN OF VERONA, which was bears an Italian character, and seems written as if the written when he knew nothing whatever of the author had said to his friends, — Now I will give you a country.
comedy, built on Italian manners, neat as I myself have “The rich old Gremio, when questioned respecting | imported.'. Indeed, did I not know its archetype, with the dower he can assure to Bianca, boasts, as a primary the scene in Athens, I might suspect it to be an adaptaconsideration, of his richly furnished house :
tion of some unknown Italian play, retaining rather too First, as you know, my house within the city
many local allusions for the English stage. Is richly furnished with plate and gold;
“Some may argue that it was possible for him to Basons and ewers, to lave her dainty hands;
learn all this from books of travels now lost, or in conMy hangings all of Tyrian tapestry :
versation with travellers; but my faith recoils from 50 In ivory coffers I have stuff'd my crowns, In cypress chests my arras, counterpoints,
bare a possibility, when the belief that he saw what he Costly apparel, tents, and canopies ;
described, is, in every point of view, without difficulty. Fine linen, Turkey cushions 'boss'd with pearl,
and probable. Books and conversation may do much Valance of Venice gold in needlework ;
for an author; but should he descend to particular de Pewter and brass, and all things that belong To house or house-keeping.
scriptions, or venture to speak of manners and customs
intimately, is it possible he should not once fall into “ Lady Morgan, in her “Italy,' says, (and my own error with no better instruction ? An objection has been observation corroborates her account,)“ there is not an made, imputing an error, in Grumio's inquiring after the article here described, that I have not found in some one rushes strewed.' But the custom of strewing rushes, or other of the palaces of Florence, Venice, and Genoa as in England, belonged also to Italy: this may be seen -the mercantile republics of Italy—even to the Tur- || in old authors; and their very word giuncare, now out key cushions 'boss'd with pearl. She then adds, this is of use, is a proof of it. English Christian-names, incithe knowledge of genius, acquired by the rapid per- dentally introduced, are but translations of the same ception and intuitive appreciation, etc.; never once Italian names, as Catarina is called Katharine and Kate; suspecting that Shakespeare had been an eye-witness of and, if they were not, comedy may well be allowed to such furniture. For my part, (unable to comprehend || take a liberty of that nature.'—C. A. Brown.