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which it urgently stands in need, in addition to those of a character exclusively spiritual. But when the clerical profession is both depressed in circumstances and insufficient in numbers, it has little prospect of commanding general notice from a proud, busy, crowded, and irreligious world.

The United States of America may seem to offer an example unfavourable to this conclusion. In them not only does religion generally prevail, but also episcopal protestantism has recently advanced in a remarkable degree. This last, however, has chiefly gained ground among the wealthier and more intelligent classes of a people habitually religious. The great mass lies under its old liability to the fluctuating influences of various discordant sects, all contending eagerly for popularity; and many parts of the country appear to be very insufficiently supplied with religious instruction and consolations of any kind. More experience and information are, therefore, needed, before conclusions can be safely drawn from the American case. But matters have gone far enough to show the value of a system that will bear sufficient examination. The church's increasing popularity among a people extensively nurtured in prejudice against it is a testimony to the soundness of their national religion upon which Englishmen may think with honest pride, and which may eventually receive due attention from inquirers after truth in other nations.

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The metaphysical and the mathematical sects

Malebranche and Leibnitz

British patronage of the mathematical philosophy

Eclectics and sceptics

Popes of the seventeenth century

Exertions to suppress protestantism

Commotions in Austria and Bohemia

Frederick, elector Palatine, chosen king of Bohemia

Imperial successes against protestantism

Gustavus Adolphus.

The peace of Westphalia .

Cessation of Romish wars

Opponents of Romanism banished from Spain and France

Religious movements in the British isles

Pacific exertions of the Romish church

Attempts at reconciliation

Papal methodists

Protestant apostacy

Papal reverses in the East

Decline of papal authority

The Venetian interdict

Papal differences with Portugal

French attacks upon the papal court

Convention of Paris for the Gallican liberties

Papal contest on the French ambassador's right of asylum

General corruption of the Romish clergy .

Division of monks into reformed and unreformed

French congregation of St. Maur

Port Royal and La Trappe

Oratory of the holy Jesus

Priests of the Missions, and Sisters of Charity

Attacks upon the Jesuits .

Progress of learning and science

Literary servicos of the Jesuits

Literary services of the Benedictines

Literary services of the Jansenista .

Eminent Romish scholars

Continuance of Doctrinal corruption among Romanists

Jesuitic perversions of morality

Romish exertions against scriptural knowledge

Diversities of Romish theological study

Romish controversies



The Jansenist controversy

Papal condemnation of Jansenism

Papal compromise with the Jansenists

Moral severity and practical piety of the Jansenists

The convent of Port Royal

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