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on the part of the Members of Session, that their acquiescence to the call of Dr. Findlay should not be afterwards construed to invalidate their claims under submission. The Presentee was, therefore, placed as soon as the forms of the Church would permit.

When these matters were engrossing the attention of the parties, the submission run out. As there was now no necessity for resorting to the Model, the discussion was dropped, nor was it again agitated, till, in the year 1761, the Magistrates having built a Church on the ruins of a privileged Presbyterian Meeting-House, in the New-Wynd, they became desirous to have a Minister to it.

The Magistrates having conversed with the Clergymen of the City, anent the mode of presenting the Minister, it was agreed that the Sessions should meet separately, and that each of them should name one Elder, to be joined to the Minister, making twelve persons, who should meet with the Magistrates, to confer respecting the mode of filling up vacancies. Accordingly, on the 4th of December 1761, the parties met, when Andrew Cochran, Esq. who was at that time Provost, informed the meeting, that the Magistrates had built a Church for the conveniency of the inhabitants, many of whom wanted seats; that it was proposed that a Minister should be called, who should be placed on the same footing with the other Ministers in the Town; and that the question then was, "How should this Minister be called, or in what way should he be settled?"

A pause having ensued, a member asked the Provost to give his opinion. In compliance with this, his Lordship said, that the Magistrates and Council should present a Minister, and then get as many of the inhabitants and Elders to sign the call as they could. The Ministers could not agree to this proposal, and the Elders were of opinion, that the natural way would be for the Magistrates to lay off a parish, and then the election would go on, conformable to the Model of 1721.

On this the Provost said that the Model had been departed from in the case of the North-West Church; that the document alluded to was irregular, and not binding on the present Council; for, although it was engrossed in their books, it was not doqueted, but simply signed by the chief Magistrate. On the other hand, it was urged, that the Model of 1721 was a solemn and well authenticated transaction; and that the settlement of the North-West Church was no departure from it, in respect, that it was stipulated at the time, that it should not be pled, as inferring such consequences, and that it was only an expedient to settle a parish which had been more than a year without a Minister.

The Provost now desired the ecclesiastical part of the meeting to report to their respective Sessions the scheme which he had proposed, with this addition, that immediately after this settlement, the Magistrates would submit their differences to two of the Lords of Session, with the Lord President as their Umpire, with full powers to make such a Model as would be the rule of election in all time coming, more particularly as the Magistrates conceived there was a speciality in the present case, there being neither elders nor a parish assigned to the Church. Soon after this the Session met, but they could not agree among themselves respecting the answer that should be sent to the Magistrates. In the interim, the Magistrates and Ministers had a meeting, when the Provost told them, that the community of Glasgow was a minor, and that neither the Magistrates who acquiesced in the Model of 1721, nor those who have succeeded or might afterwards succeed them, could give away their property, meaning their rights of patronage. To this it was answered, that the Church of Scotland had laid down rules, on which the Model was founded, and that it was not lawful for the civil power to wrest such privileges from those who held ecclesiastical situations. Mr. James Stirling, the Minister of the Outer Church, said, that whatever the Magistrates and Council might declare in words, to the effect 3 F

VOL. II.

that they did not desire to be the exclusive Patrons for the Churches, yet it was evident from their Acts of Council in April, August, and November 1755, that they aimed at nothing short of patronage over the whole City, in its utmost rigour and extent.

The Town Council having remitted to a Committee of their number to draw up a scheme for presenting Ministers to vacant parishes, which would combine the interests of both parties, a Council was held on the 27th January 1763, when the report of the Committee was ordered to be put on the records; it was styled a Proposal for Calling and Electing Ministers to vacant Parishes in Glasgow, and was of the following import, viz. "Ist, That when a vacancy happens in any of the Churches where the Minister's stipends are paid out of the Town's funds, the chief Magistrate shall be obliged to convene the Town Council, within four months of such vacancy, for nominating a proper person to be a Candidate for supplying the vacant parish. 2d, That the eldest Minister of the City shall, in the same space, convene the Session of the vacant parish, who are to nominate another person as a Candidate to the vacant charge. 3d, That after the nomination of the Candidates by the Town Council and vacant Session, and previous to the general meeting for election after mentioned, the parishioners in the vacant parish shall be sounded, and their inclinations anent the Candidates reported to the said. general meeting. 4th, That the chief Magistrate of the City for the time being, within ten days after expiry of the four months aforesaid, shall convene the whole Members of the Town Council, twelve Members from the vacant Session, and three Members from each of the other Sessions, to be chosen by themselves ten days preceding this general meeting, who shall, in a collective body, determine which of the two Candidates shall be Minister of the vacant parish. 5th, That the Magistrates, Dean of Guild, and Convener, on the part of the Town Council, and a Committee, to be named by the above

electors, in name of the Elders, shall apply to the Presbytery at their first meeting, to appoint the moderation of a call to the person elected as above, to be Minister of the said vacant parish, and shall thereafter prosecute the said settlement according to the rules of the Church. And further, the Council ordain the foresaid report to be printed, and copies thereof given to such of the inhabitants as are pleased to call for them, and extracts thereof, and of these presents to be transmitted to each of the six Ministers, to be laid before their respective Sessions for publication, and continue advising the Committee's report till the 10th day of February next. Extracted by

"ARCHIBALD M'GILCHRIST, Dep. Clk."

Notwithstanding that due time had been given for the consideration of these concessions, the parties could not come to an amicable adjustment of their differences; the Magistrates, therefore, applied to the Lords Commissioners for the plantation of Kirks, to grant them relief from the Models, and their connection with Church Courts, in the election of Ministers. It is not surprising that a measure of this kind should meet with great opposition. Mr. Archibald Ingram, the Provost, Baillie John Jamieson, and several Members of the Council, protested against it. The influence of the late Provost, Mr. Cochrane, however, was so great, that he carried every point respecting this matter. The process, therefore, went on, and the result was, that the Magistrates and Council, as representing the community, who endows the Churches, were declared to be the exclusive Patrons; and their successors have ever since acted on that decreet. The termination of this process was so displeasing to the General Session, that a number of its Members left the Church, and having erected a Chapel in Canon-Street, they termed it "The MeetingHouse of the Free Presbyterian Society."

CHAP. XVIII.

Education-Number of Schools in the City-Poor-Mode of Supplying them— Number of Paupers on the Kirk Sessions-Circulating Libraries-Stirling's Library-Glasgow Public Library-Robertsonian Library—Literary Society— Literary and Commercial Society—Widows' Fund Society-Annuity Society— Farmers' Society-Public Green, and improvements connected with it—LetterFounding, or Type-Making-Account of Messrs. Alexander Wilson and Sons' Manufactory-Post-Office-Rates and Amount-Records of the Presbytery of Glasgow and General Session-Names of the principal Streets, narrating the times when they were opened-Banks-Mason Lodges-Ale and Spirit Licenses issued for the City and Suburbs—Reservoirs for the supply of the Forth and Clyde Navigation-Assize of Bread-Mode of Setting it in Glasgow-Flour Mills at Partick and Clayslap-Cess, or Land-Tax-Population-Mortality

Bill.

EDUCATION.

THE attention which has been paid to the education of the lower orders of the Scottish nation has been proverbial over Europe for several centuries past.

In the year 1494, chap. 54. of the Scotch Parliament, fines of 201. were enacted against all Barons and Freeholders who do not put their sons 66 to the schules, fra they be sex or nine yeires of age." From the Reformation in 1560 till 1620, numerous attempts were made by the Scotch Parliaments to encourage learning, and many privileges similar to benefit of Clergy granted to those who were considered scholars. In the Statute of 1579, chap. 74, for the punishment of strong and idle beggars, it was enacted concerning such persons as came under the penalty of the Act, between the ages of fourteen and seventy years, "that their eares may be nayled to the Trone, or to anither tree, and their eares cutted off, and banished the Countrie, and gif thereafter they be found againe, that they be hanged;" and, in a further part of the same Act, a description is given of those who are to be esteemed vagabonds, and idle beggars; from which it may be inferred, that even beggars attended the Universities. A student was rewarded, by a special permission, to beg, and privileged to ask alms;

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