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have cut up the whole force; he, however, retired to the Town of Hamilton, and marched his party next morning to Glasgow, when an attack commenced. The countrymen laboured under great disadvantages, their horses being untrained, were of little use to them, particularly as the soldiers fired upon them from closes and houses; the result was, that a number fell upon both sides. At length, when the countrymen found themselves grievously annoyed from the houses, they retired in good order to the outside of the Gallowgate Port, expecting that Claverhouse would give them battle in the open fields; but in this they were disappointed; they therefore returned to Hamilton that same night. Claverhouse was so much exasperated on this occasion, that he gave orders that the dead bodies of Hamilton's party should not be buried, but left on the streets to be devoured by the dogs. When some women (for the men durst not interfere) attempted to carry them to the grave, they were compelled by the soldiers to desist. At length, the bodies were taken to the Trades' House Hospital, near the High Church, where they lay till an order was obtained to bury them.

On the 3d of June, the Council heard of the affair of Drumbog; on which, they published a proclamation, declaring the insurrection to have been open rebellion and high treason. On the 5th current, they published another proclamation for assembling the Militia to act in concert with the King's forces; and a third proclamation, on the 7th of June, commanding all heritors and freeholders to attend the King's host. Lord Ross and the other officers of the King's forces at Glasgow, finding the country people assembling in great numbers, judged it prudent to leave the Town; they, therefore, retired to Kilsyth on the 13th current. Next day, when near Falkirk, they received an order from the Council to stop till the Earl of Linlithgow's regiment and other forces should join them, and then to march back to Glasgow all in a body.

The Council having submitted their proceedings to the King, he approved of the whole, and promised them assistance. Notwithstanding of royal approbation, the Council were panic struck when they heard that the force of the Rebels had extended to upwards of 8000 men. Under this emergency, the King, by the advice of his English Council, named his natural son, James, Duke of Buccleugh and Monmouth, commander in chief of the forces in Scotland, with very ample powers. The Duke left London on the 15th of June, and arrived in Edinburgh on the 19th, and was that day appointed a Privy Counsellor. He immediately took the command of the forces then at Edinburgh; but, from the want of provisions, his motions westward were slow. He marched from Edinburgh by the way of Livingston and Bathgate, and, on Saturday, June 21st, encamped on Bothwell Moor. A deputation from the other party waited upon him next day with proposals, to which His Grace gave a civil answer, but refused to treat unless they would lay down their arms in half an hour. When the Commissioners returned, the officers engaged in a debate, in which nothing was agreed on, so that no answer was returned to the General; preparations were, therefore, immediately made for an engagement.

The army of the Covenanters, or the Rebels as they were called, lay in Hamilton Moor, on the south side of the river Clyde, surrounded by the river on the north, north-east, and north-west. The Bridge at Bothwell, a pass of much importance, was guarded by a party of two or three hundred men; and, being attacked by Lord Livingston, at the head of the foot-guards, the Covenanters made an able resistance for more than an hour, till their ammunition failed; when they found their powder and ball falling short, they sent an Aid-de-Camp to Mr. Hamilton, who had been appointed their General, for a supply of ammunition, or fresh troops to assist them; instead of this, he ordered them to quit the Bridge, and retire to the body of the army; having immediately complied, the Duke

followed, threw them into disorder, and obtained a complete victory. 1200 surrendered themselves prisoners in the Moor, 400 were killed, and a great many wounded. The soldiers were guilty of great cruelty; several persons, not at all connected with the battle, were murdered in cold blood. Claverhouse and the other officers who had been formerly pretty roughly handled at Glasgow, solicited the General to ruin the West Country; to burn Glasgow, Hamilton, and Strathaven; to kill the prisoners; and permit the army to plunder the Western Shires. But the General, much to his honour, rejected their proposals with detestation. They then requested, that the soldiers might be allowed at least three or four day's plunder in Glasgow, on account of the favour it had shown. to the West Country Rebel army; this demand was likewise peremptorily refused; yet, it is said, that the Town of Glasgow, in order to escape plunder at this time, was obliged to quit the Town of Edinburgh (for behoof of particular persons) of a debt of 30,000 merks they held upon property in that neighbourhood.

It would be endless to enter upon the spoils and ravages committed after this engagement; the prisoners were sent off to Edinburgh, where they arrived on 24th June, half-starved, tied two and two. In the meantime, Monmouth paid a visit to Glasgow, and was well received; he then went back to Edinburgh, where he arrived on 26th June. On his arrival, the prisoners were treated with humanity, and all those who promised to live peaceable, were set at liberty; about 300 obstinately refused these easy conditions, and were shipped for Barbadoes, but being stowed under deck in a small vessel, which was cast away off Orkney, 200 of them perished at sea. Two of the Ministers concerned in this affair, viz. Messrs. John King and John Kid, were tried before the Justices, condemned, and executed on the 18th of August. When Monmouth returned to Edinburgh, he was waited on by a deputation of Presbyterian Gentlemen and Ministers, and

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requested to use his influence with the King to extend liberty to their party; they were graciously received, and promised that nothing proper should be wanting on his part. Soon after this, the King issued a proclamation, suspending the laws against House-Conventicles, and the Privy Council of Scotland received orders to grant warrants for liberating the Ministers who were in custody.

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CHAP. XIV.

James, Duke of York, made a Privy Counsellor of Scotland-Prosecutions against those concerned in the Battle of Bothwell Bridge-Persecution of Mr. John Spreull-Mr. Donald Cargill, late Minister of the Barony Parish, executed— Test Act enforced-The Earl of Argyle absconds, is tried in absence, and degraded-Death of Charles II.-The Duke of York declared King, under the style of James II.-The Earl of Argyle returns in Arms, is apprehended, and beheaded in Edinburgh―The Duke of Monmouth beheaded, after the Battle of Sedgemoor-The first Indulgence-The Queen is delivered of a Son-A General Pardon published-The Prince of Orange invades England-Abject Flattery of the Scotch Bishops-William III. proclaimed at Glasgow-The Students in the University of Glasgow burn the Pope and the Archbishops of St. Andrews and Glasgow in Effigy-King James withdraws to France-James is declared to have abdicated the Throne-Scotch Commissioners introduced to William and Mary at Whitehall-The King's Supremacy in the Church of Scotland rescinded-A General Assembly appointed-Death of William and MaryAccession of Queen Anne-Union of Scotland with England-Union unpopular in Scotland-Patronage restored-Death of the Queen-Accession of“ George I-Rebellion in Scotland-Battle of Preston-Pretender arrives in Scotland, and is proclaimed King― Returns to the Continent-Scotch Nobility and others executed-Death of George I. and Accession of George II.—Charles, the Son of the Old Pretender, arrives in Scotland-Proclaims his Father KingSir John Cope defeated by the Rebels near Prestonpans-The Duke of Cumberland defeats the Rebels at Culloden-The Young Pretender retires to the Continent―The Rebels severely punished-The Highlanders prevented from wearing the Garb of their Ancestors-Abolition of the Hereditary Jurisdictions-Death of George II.—Accession of George III.-Pedigree of the Stuart Family.

In the end of 1679, James, Duke of York, brother to the King, came to Scotland, and was received by the Council with great solemnity; and, in virtue of the King's letter, was admitted a Privy Counsellor without taking the oaths, he being a Papist.

In 1680, a number of prosecutions were raised, at the instigation of the Duke of York, against those who were concerned in the battle of Bothwell Bridge, and those heritors and gentlemen who had not attended the King's host; for these offences, forfeitures and fugitations took place, and many of the forfeited estates were given to Papists, by the influence of the Duke and his creatures.

Among those prosecuted for being concerned in the Bothwell affair, there were sixteen citizens of Glasgow, besides a great number of heritors in the County of Lanark; those who resigned their lands were dismissed, others having stood their trial, had their estates forfeited. To give some idea of the mode of procedure in such cases, that of Mr. John Spreull, apothecary in Glasgow, shall suffice. Mr. Spreull's father was a Covenanter and a merchant in Paisley; after the battle of Pentland, he was fined by the Earl of Middleton, and forced to abscond; the son was then apprehended, because he would not discover where his father was; after having withstood threatenings of being shot, or roasted alive, he was liberated in 1677; he was afterwards cited before the Court at Glasgow for non-conformity, but, having made his escape to Holland, he did not return till after the affair of Drumbog. Soon after the battle of Bothwell, he again absconded to Holland; during his absence, his wife and family were turned out of his house and shop, and all his moveables confiscated. On returning to this country, in order to remove his family to Rotterdam, where he had now established a business, he was apprehended at Edinburgh, on the 12th of November, and next day carried before the Duke and Council, and interrogated with regard to the concern which he had in the affairs of Drumbog and Bothwell; the usual ensnaring questions, which were put to all persons at that period, were also proposed to him, such as, "Was the killing of Archbishop Sharp a murder? Were the risings at Drumbog and Bothwell rebellions?" Having refused to sign his examination, and denied

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