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furnished with some, money from France, he embarked for Scotland, on board a small frigate, accompanied by the Marquis of Tulliburdine, Sir Thomas Sheridan, and some others; and for the conquest of the whole British Empire, they only brought with them seven officers, and arms for 2000 men.


Fortune, however, did not seem to favour this attempt, an English man of war engaged his convoy, which was obliged to return to Brest, and the Pretender shaped his course to the western parts of Scotland. On the 27th July 1745, he landed on the coast of Lochaber, and was soon after joined by 1500 Highlanders; on receiving information of this, the Ministry sent Sir John Cope, with a small body of troops, to oppose his progress. By this time, the young Pretender had arrived at Perth, where he performed the ceremony of proclaiming his father King of Great Britain; from thence he went to Edinburgh, increasing in numbers as he went along, and entered the Capital without opposition, but was unable, for want of cannon, to reduce the Castle; here he again proclaimed his father, and proceeded to dissolve the Union, which was still considered a great grievance. In the meantime, Sir John Cope being reinforced by two regiments of dragoons, resolved to give the enemy battle; the Rebels attacked him near Prestonpans, and in a few minutes put him and his troops to flight, with the loss of 500 men.

This victory gave the Rebels great influence, and had the Pretender marched direct to England, the consequence might have been fatal to freedom, but he was amused waiting for succours which never came, and the season was lost; he was joined, however, by the Earl of Kilmarnock, Lord Balmerino, and Lords Cromarty, Elcho, Ogilvy, and the eldest son of Lord Lovat, who, with their vassals, considerably increased his army.

While Charles was trifling away his time at Edinburgh, the Ministry had collected 6000 Dutch troops to oppose him, and the Duke of Cumberland soon after arrived from Flanders,

and was followed by a large detachment of dragoons and infantry.

Charles having at last resolved to march into England, he entered the Town of Carlisle, and from that he went southward to Manchester, where he was joined by Colonel Townly, and about 200 men. Having arrived within 100 miles of London, the Capital was thrown into great consternation, and had it not been for a dissension which arose in his army, there is little doubt but that he would have entered the Capital; his followers, however, the Highland Chiefs, who were averse to subordination, and ignorant of command, wished to return to their own country, and Charles was forced to comply. They retreated to Carlisle without any loss, and from thence crossing the river Eden and the Solway Frith, they entered Scotland; and having marched to Glasgow, they laid that City under severe contributions. From thence advancing to Stirling, the Pretender was joined by Lord Lewis Gordon, with his forces; other Clans coming in, and supplies arriving from Spain, the Pretender's affairs seemed to assume a promising aspect. Being joined by Lord Drummond, he invested the Castle of Stirling; General Hawley, who commanded a considerable force near Edinburgh, undertook to raise the siege, and advanced towards the Rebel army as far as Falkirk. After two days spent in examining each other's strength, an engagement ensued, which ended in the entire defeat of the King's forces, with the loss of their tents and artillery. The Duke of Cumberland having now arrived, was put at the head of the troops at Edinburgh, amounting to 14,000. With them he advanced to Aberdeen, where he was joined by several of the nobles who were attached to the House of Hanover, the enemy in the meantime retreating before him. He next advanced to the banks of the Spey, a deep and rapid river, where the Rebels might have disputed his passage, but their contentions had gone to such a height, that they could not agree upon any plan; they were, however, obliged to wait on their

pursuers, and an engagement ensued at Culloden, near Inverness, in which the Rebels were defeated with great slaughter, and a final period put to the hopes of the young Pretender.

The conqueror behaved with the greatest cruelty, refusing quarter to the wounded, the unarmed, and the defenceless; the soldiers were seen to anticipate the employment of the executioner; the Duke, immediately after the engagement, ordered thirty-six deserters to be executed; the conquerors spread terror wherever they came, and, after a short space, the whole country was one dreadful scene of plunder, slaughter, and desolation.

Immediately after the engagement, the young Pretender fled away with a Captain of Fitz-James' cavalry, and, when their horses were fatigued, they both alighted, and separating, sought for safety. There is a striking resemblance between the young Pretender after the battle of Culloden, and Charles II. after the battle of Worcester; sometimes he found refuge in caves and cottages, without any attendants; sometimes he lay in forests with one or two of his companions in distress, continually pursued by the troops of the conqueror, there being a reward offered for him of 30,000l., dead or alive. In the course of his adventures, he had occasion to trust his life to upwards of fifty persons, not one of whom could be persuaded to betray him whom they looked on to be their King's son.

For six months, the unfortunate Charles continued to wander in the frightful wilds of Glengary; at length, a privateer of St. Maloes, hired by his adherents, arrived at Lochrannoch, in which he embarked, in a most wretched attire; he was clad in a short coat of black frieze, threadbare, over which was a Highland plaid, girt round him by a belt, from which hung a pistol and dagger; he had not been shifted for many weeks; his eyes were hollow, his visage wan, and his constitution greatly impaired by famine and fatigue. He was accompanied by Sullivan and Sheridan, two Irish adherents, who had shared all his calamities, together with Cameron of Lochiel, his

brother, and a few other exiles. They set sail, and, after having been chased by two English men of war, arrived in safety at a place called Rosseau, near Morlaix, in Bretagne.

While the Pretender was thus pursued, the scaffolds and gibbets were preparing for his adherents; seventeen officers were hanged, drawn, and quartered, at Kensington Common, in the neighbourhood of London; nine were executed in the same manner at Carlisle, and eleven at York; a few obtained pardon, and a considerable number of the common men were transported to America; the Earls of Kilmarnock and Cromarty, and Lord Balmerino were tried, and found guilty of high treason; Cromarty was pardoned, but Balmerino and Kilmarnock were executed, as was also Mr. Radcliffe, brother to the late Earl of Derwentwater, who was sentenced upon an outlawry; Lord Lovat was tried, and suffered some time after. Immediately after the suppression of the rebellion, the Legislature ordained that, in all time coming, the Highlanders should not wear the ancient dress of their ancestors, and that they should never appear with arms, without the authority of their Sovereign; but what contributed still more to their real felicity, was the abolition of that hereditary jurisdiction which the Chieftains exercised over them, the power of these Chieftains was thereby totally destroyed, and every subject in that part of the Kingdom, was granted a participation in the common liberty.

On the 25th of October 1760, the King died in the 77th year of his age age, and was succeeded by His present Majesty, King George III.


First generation of the High Stewards.

1. Walter, the first High Steward of Scotland, founded, in the year 1164, an Abbey at Paisley, in the shire of Renfrew, for the Monks of Clugny, a remarkable monument of his opulence and liberality; he died in 1177.

2. Alan the High Steward, son and heir of the preceding Walter. This Alan succeeded to his father Walter in 1177; he died in the year 1204, and was buried at Paisley.

3. Walter the High Steward, son of the preceding Alan. He succeeded his father in the year 1204, and died in the year 1246. This Walter was made Justiciary of Scotland, on 24th August 1230.

4. Alexander the High Steward, son, and heir of Walter. This Alexander succeeded to his father Walter, in 1246, and died in the year 1283; he commanded the Scotch army at the battle of Largs, where he obtained a victory over the Norwegians, and their leader, Haco.

5. James the High Steward, son and heir of Alexander. This James succeeded to his father in 1283; he died on the 16th of June 1309, and was buried at Paisley, on 13th of March. This James wrote to Philip, King of France, that he and the other five Regents had recognised King Robert de Brus his right to the crown of Scotland.

6. Walter the High Steward, son and heir of James. This Walter succeeded to his father, on the 16th of June 1309; he married Marjory, the daughter of King Robert de Brus, in 1315, and died on the 9th of April 1326. This Walter behaved nobly at the battle of Bannockburn, in 1314, and had the honour to receive on the Border, between England and Scotland, the illustrious Scotch prisoners, then released from captivity in England, viz. Elizabeth, the wife of King Robert de Brus; Marjory Brus, his daughter; Christian, his sister; Donald, Earl of Marr, her son; and Robert Wiseheart, Bishop of Glasgow.

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