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7. Robert the High Steward, afterwards King of Scotland. This Robert was born on the 2d of March 1315, of the marriage between Walter the Steward, and Marjory, daughter of King Robert de Brus; on the death of his father, Walter, in 1326, he succeeded to the estates and possessions of the Stewards of Scotland, and on the death of his uncle, King David de Brus, (son to King Robert I.,) which happened in February 1370, Robert succeeded to the crown of Scotland; he died in 1390, and was succeeded by his son, John, Earl of Carrick, who, having laid aside the name of John, took that of Robert, and was afterwards known by the name of King Robert III.; he died in 1406.

Robert and Murdoch, Earls of Fife and Monteith, assumed a kind of partial government in Scotland, till 1423, when King James I. succeeded his father Robert III.; James died in 1437, and was succeeded by his son, James II., who died in 1460; and was succeeded by his son James III.; this James having died in 1489, was succeeded by his son, James IV.; who having died in 1514, was succeeded by his son James V., who died in 1544. At this period, the crown of Scotland devolved upon his only child, Mary Queen of Scots, then an infant of eight days old. In the year 1565, she married her cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, son of Matthew, the fourth Earl of Lennox, and Baillie of the Regality of Glasgow; of which marriage, King James VI. of Scotland, and I. of England, was the only child, and the heir of every thing that pertained to his father or to his mother; he, therefore, not only succeeded to the crown of Scotland, in the right of his mother, but he was, in right of blood, the complete representative of the High Stewards of Scotland, in the male line of succession; by his mother he was descended from James the Steward, (the oldest son of Alexander the High Steward, above mentioned,) whose male issue failed on the death of King James V.; and, by his father, Lord Henry Darnley, he was the lineal descendant, and heir male of the said Alexander the High Steward, as being



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descended from Sir John Stuart of Bonkyl, the second son of the said Alexander. King James VI. succeeded to the throne, on the resignation of his mother, on 25th July 1567; he died in March 1625; and was succeeded by his son, King Charles I., who was beheaded on the 30th of January 1649; succeeded by his son, King Charles II., who died in February 1685; succeeded by his brother, King James II. of England, who died at Rome, in August 1701, leaving one son, James, born in the year 1688, who died at Rome, upon the first day of January 1766. This last James left two sons, Charles and Henry; the eldest of whom, Charles, died without issue, in the year 1787, and Henry Benedict Maria Clement, (Cardinal York,) the youngest, who was born at Rome, on the 26th of March 1725, styling himself Henry IX. of Eng

land, died in that City, in 1807, and is universally known to be the only male direct descendant from James VI. of Scotland, and I. of England. The Cardinal having died without leaving issue, the whole male line of the Stuarts, descended from Sir John Stuart of Darnley, the first Lord of Aubigny in France, grandfather to Sir John Stuart, the first Earl of Lennox of the Stuart line, is now extinct.

Soon after the battle of Culloden, so fatal to the interests of the Stuarts, Henry took holy orders, much to the displeasure of his brother Charles and his family, and Pope Benedict XIV. made him a Cardinal at the age of twentytwo, and afterwards Bishop of Trascati, and Chancellor of the Church of St. Peter. From that time, the Cardinal devoted himself to the functions of his ministry, and seemed to have laid aside all worldly views till his brother's death, in 1787, when he had medals struck, bearing on their face his head, with "Henricus Nonus, Angliæ Rex," on the reverse, a city, with "Gratia Dei, sed non Voluntate Hominum *."

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* Henry the Ninth, King of England, by the Grace of God, but not by the Will of Men.

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The Cardinal had two rich livings in France, the Abbeys of Anchin and St. Amand, and a considerable pension from the Court of Spain, all of which he lost at the French Revolution. In order to assist Pope Pius VI. in making up the sum required by the French Government in 1790, the Cardinal disposed of all the family jewels, and among others, of a ruby, the largest and most perfect known, valued at 50,000l. He thus deprived himself of the last means of an independent subsistence, and was reduced to great distress. On the expulsion of Pius VI. and his Court from Rome, in the winter of 1798, old, infirm, and destitute, he emigrated to Venice. Cardinal Borgia, having informed Sir John Hippesley Cox, with whom he was acquainted in Italy, of the situation of Cardinal York, Sir John immediately communicated the circumstance to the British Government, when His gracious Majesty, King George III., ordered his Minister at the Republic, to offer the Cardinal with all possible delicacy, a pension of 4,000l. per annum, which was received with gratitude during the remainder of his life. The Cardinal returned to Rome in 1801, and died the Doyen of the sacred College, after being one of its most virtuous and disinterested members for more than sixty years.

By the Cardinal's last will, he has bequeathed to the Royal Family of England, the English stars and garters which had been in his family, together with certain papers relative to the Monarchy of that Country; and to close the scene, the Prince Regent has subscribed liberally for a monument to be erected in Italy, to the memory of the last of the Stuart race.

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University-Chancellors-Principals-Professors of Divinity-Rectors—Andersonian Institution -- Presidents-Secretaries-Professors-Hutchesons' Hospital-Preceptors-Town's Hospital-Preceptors—Theatre-Glasgow Obser vatory-Presidents-Secretaries—Observers― Glasgow Philosophical SocietyGrammar-School-Conveners-Rectors- Teachers-Duxes.


To give a distinct account of the University of Glasgow, it is necessary to consider it during three periods, viz. before the reformation from Popery, that which succeeded it, and the present mode of conducting education, according to the improvements in literature and the state of society.

ORIGIN.-At the request of King James II., Pope Nicholas V. granted a Bull, constituting a University, to continue, in all time to come, in the City of Glasgow, it being a notable place, with good air, and plenty of provisions for human life; and by his apostolical authority, ordained, that its Doctors, Masters, Readers, and Students, should enjoy all the privileges, liberties, honours, exemptions, and immunities, as he had granted to the University of his City of Bononia; he likewise appointed William Turnbull, Bishop of Glasgow, and his successors in that See, Chancellors of the University, and to have the same authority over the Doctors, Masters, Readers, and Scholars, as the Chancellors of the University of Bononia. This Bull is dated at Rome, 7th January 1450, in the 4th year of his pontificate.

ESTABLISHMENT.-By the care of the Bishop and his Chapter, a body of statutes were prepared, and a University established in the year 1451, consisting, besides the Chancellor, of a Rector and Masters of the four Faculties, who had taken their degrees in other Universities, and students, who, after a

course of study, might be promoted to academical degrees. That this Institution might open with the greater celebrity, the Bishop had procured and published a Bull from the Pope, granting a universal indulgence to all faithful Christians who should visit the Cathedral Church of Glasgow in the year 1451. It appears, that David Cadzow, a Canon of Glasgow, was the first Rector, and that he was re-elected in 1452. He incorporated more than 100 Members during two years; most of them were secular or regular Clergy, Canons, Rectors, Vicars, Abbots, Priors, and Monks. Andrew Stuart, brother to King James II., was Sub-Dean in 1456.

EXEMPTIONS.-The Clergy were the more willing to attend the University, as the Bishop procured Royal Charters and Acts of Parliament, exempting them from all taxes and public burthens, and from their residence in their own cures.

ROYAL CHARTER.-King James II. granted a Royal Charter in 1453, in favour of the University, by which the Rectors, the Deans of the Faculties, the Procurators of the four nations, (afterwards explained,) the Masters, Regents, and Scholars, as well as the Beadles, Writers, Stationers, and ParchmentMakers, are exempted from all taxes, watchings, and wardings, weapon-shawing, &c.

Privileges and POWERS.-The foregoing privileges were renewed by subsequent Acts of Parliament, and others added. We find, that when a tax of one-eighth part of all ecclesiastical livings were exacted for the defence of the nation against the English, that the Clergy in the University of Glasgow were exempted. The right of exemption from taxation was sustained by the Lords of the Court of Session, on the 20th of November 1633. The Bishop exempted the Members of the University from all toll or custom on the buying, selling, or transporting of provisions. He also obliged the Magistrates of Glasgow, upon their election, to swear that they should observe, and cause to be observed, the liberties, immunities, and statutes of the University.

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