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“Mr. and Mıs. Oswell, whom (who], I thought, were most delightful people.”

“A quiet and steady boy, whom (who], I firmly believe, never sinned in word, thought, or act.”

“Friday, whom (who], he thinks, would be better than a dog, and almost as good as a pony."

“The Record has not ceased its attacks on Bishop Jack. son, whom (who), it fears, may be translated to the See of London.”

Whose. Mr. George Washington Moon discountenances the use of whose as the possessive of which. He says, “The best writers, when speaking of inanimate objects, use of which instead of whose.The correctness of this statement is doubtful. The truth is, I think, that good writers use that form for the possessive case of which that in their judgment is, in each particular case,

the more euphonious, giving the preference, perhaps, to of which. On this subject Dr. Campbell says: "The possessive of who is properly whose. The pronoun which, originally indeclinable, had no possessive. This was supplied, in the common periphrastic manner, by the help of the preposition and the article. But, as this could not fail to enfeeble the expression, when so much time was given to mere conjunctives, all our best authors, both in prose and verse, have now come regularly to adopt, in such cases, the possessive of who, and thus have substituted one syllable in the room of three, as in the example following: 'Philosophy, whose end is to instruct us in the knowledge of nature,' for ‘ Philosophy, the end of which is to instruct us.' Some grammarians remonstrate ; but it ought to be remembered that use, well established, must give law to grammar, and not grammar to use."

Professor Bain says: Whose, although the possessive

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of who, and practically of which, is yet frequently employed for the purpose of restriction : ‘We are the more likely to guard watchfully against those faults whose deformity we have seen fully displayed in others.' This is better than the deformity of which we have seen.' 'Propositions of whose truth we have no certain knowledge.'Locke."

Dr. Fitz-Edward Hall says that the use of whose for of which, where the antecedent is not only irrational but inanimate, has had the support of high authority for several hundred years.

Widowhood. There is good authority for using this word in speaking of men as well as of women.

Widow woman. Since widows are always women, why say a widow woman? It would be correct to say a widowed woman.

Will_Would. These two auxiliaries are continually misused in conversation and in the newspapers. Here are some examples, gathered chiefly from the newspapers :

“The Japanese said they thought they would [should] be in Peking on Nov. 30."

“ Warden Sage said that he would [should] not put Buchanan .; he said that he would [should] be governed,” etc.-N. Y. Evening Sun.

“We would [should] not grieve if immigration were to decline."—N. Y. Sun.

“Lawyer Gibbons said that he had not decided what course he would [should) pursue ; he was certain, however, that he would [should] do nothing right away."—N. Y. Evening Sun.

· They feel confident that out of the 3,500 men they will [shall] be able to cull talent that shall [will) send the department ahead.”—N. Y. Evening Sun,

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“If that be conservative ground, all we have to say is that we would [should] like to see,” etc.

“They have a great many fine old jewels in London, but I would [should] not be surprised,” etc.

“Commissioner Andrews announced that he would (should) call a special meeting.”—N. Y. Sun.

“Commissioner Grant said he would (should) vote for Commissioner Roosevelt for president."—N. Y. Sun.

They would (should) have a meeting to-day, he said." -N. Y. Sun.

“He thought he would [should] be able to tell the public," etc.

“I thought I would [should) go wild with anguish.”

“Such being the case, I would [should) rather not talk. We will [shall] simply move for a new trial. We will [shall] have to see how that motion ends."

‘The Parade Committee sent a message saying that they would [should) be glad to furnish a carriage for him.”

“We would [should] not wonder if we were told,” etc.

“My broker came to me, and told me that I would [should) have to put up more margin.”

“He said he did not know yet whether or not he would (should) plead guilty.”

“He said he would [should] have an investigation made."

As we parted he grasped my hand, and said he would (should) look for my speedy recovery.”

“A man asked me to-day if we would [should] like some squirrels."

“The justice said he was sorry, but that he would [should] have to commit him.”

“Mrs. Winchester believes that when her house is fin. ished she will [shall] die.”—N. Y. Sun.

“The cashier said that he would [should] not have hesitated to have paid (pay] the money."

“He says the battle is hard, but he thinks he will [shall] win.”—Headline, N. Y. Sun.

“We know that our Defender is a good fair-weather boat, and would [should] like to know how she would [will] behave when the white caps are out."—N. Y. Sun.

“If any of the great powers ... we would [should] have been at war," etc.-St. James Gazette.

" The Bannocks and Shoshones have just given notice that they will [shall] demand from the Government fulfillment of the treaty of 1868, and will [shall) insist on protection in the exercise of their rights."

“Follow the dictates of your own patriotic impulse and business instincts, and we will [shall] be all right.”—N. Y. Sun.

Will (shall] we come to this dress suit?"—N. Y. Sun.

“Mr. Bonner told his family that he did not know exactly how long he would [should] be away, but said that he would [should) be back in time to spend the Christmas holidays, if possible.”—N. Y. Sun.

“Gen. Schofield said that he will [should] go out of town on a visit over Sunday, and will [should) return on Tuesday.”—N. Y. Evening Sun.

“Otherwise, they declare, they would [should] have beaten the Vigilant more.”—N. Y. Sun.

In the first person, the bare fact of futurity is always expressed by shall. I shall go to Philadelphia to-morrow." “He says he shall go to Philadelphia to-morrow.' He said he should go to Philadelphia to-morrow.” We use 'will in the first person when we promise, or express determination, and only then.

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“I will not die alone"-i. e., I am determined that others shall die with me. “I shall not die alone"-i. e., events will cause others to die with me.

I will go to Philadelphia in spite of you." he will go to Philadelphia in spite of you.”

“ He said he would go to Philadelphia in spite of you.” Determination.

We would [should] hate to hear of the slaughter of any of our countrymen in Cuba.”—N. Y. Sun.

The use of will in the sentence, We will publish the correct reading in our next number,' is perfectly cor

It expresses present intention of a future act.” -N. Y. Evening Sun.

Not so.

In the first person, simple intention is expressed with shall. See SHALL and WILL.

Without. This word is often improperly used instead of unless ; as, “ You will never live to my age without you keep yourself in breath and exercise." "I shall not go without my father consents”: properly, unless my father consents, or, without my father's consent.

“It has brought me here, Sara, and I can not leave you without you promise that you will not become the wife of a man who drinks”: should be,“ without your promise,” or, “unless you promise.”

'You know my uncle declared he would not suffer me to return without (unless] my mamma desired it.” Woman.

John Brown, having been sent the other day at Balmoral by the Queen in quest of the lady in waiting, who happened to be the Duchess of Athole, suddenly stumbled against her. 'Hoot, mam,' cried J. B., 'ye're just the woman I was looking for.' The enraged Duchess dashed incontinently into the royal presence and exclaimed to her Majesty : 'Madame, J. B. has insulted me; he has had the impertinence to call me a woman. To which the

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