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tery of the Dead Weight, and persuaded down, the land over-run with weeds, the parliament to agree to his proposition. He house falling to decay, there was hardly hoped that this mystery would be got rid any occasion to ask the reason--that of on the first opportunity. It would be estate was in Chancery. In like manner, no great exertion of the present parliament when the country.was in a state of distress, to grant ministers that indemnity they that was because

the ministers were asked for; namely, allowing the importa- doubting and pausing. An estate was tion of that grain which had been described ruined because it was in Chancery [That as food for man in Scotland, and for horses was when lord King was chancellor, from in England, and the importation of other the lord chancellor-hear! and a laugh], corn that was fit to be eaten by other and the country was involved in distress animals. But he hoped the present because ministers were doubting. If our parliament would do more than this. intelligent artizans were emigrating, and Parliament was, however, the slowest carrying with them that knowledge which learner, the most backward and perverse would establish manufactories in other scholar, he ever knew. It took ten years countries, it was because ministers were to teach it some few of the truths of pausing. If capital was driven out of the political economy, of which some gentle country—if profits were low-if men even yet entertained so much dread. manufacturers could no longer compete For two years it was drilled into, and then with those of other countries it was also seemed scarcely to comprehend, the because ministers were doubting and doctrine of transition from war to peace, pausing. They were the most extraordinary which was frequently and forcibly incul- doubters and pausers, excepting lord cated on it, that it might not insist on chancellors — whether lord chancellor reducing the expenditure, and that it King or lord chancellor Eldon-he had might not suppose excessive taxation was ever witnessed. He must say, however, the cause of the distress, at that time. A in favour of the noble earl, that his delays whole year and more it was taught without only ruined the suitors in his court, while ever learning, he believed, the great truth nothing less than the ruin of the country of over-production. For a long time it was caused by the doubts and pausings of

. listened with surprise to the great merit ministers. It was yet doubtful whether of digging holes and filing them up the Corn-bill was to be a cabinet question again, and then again digging holes and or not; and, like the Catholic question, then refilling them. But the most difficult he believed it was not, because no mealesson of all, was the Canada Corn-bill, sure of importance was made a cabinet the doctrines of which many persons still question. The famous Corn-bill of 1815 refused to assent to. Then there was was not a cabinet measure; it was got up that other Corn-bill, which the other by Irish jobbers, well seconded, indeed, parliament had never comprehended, and by the jobbers both of England and Scotwhich he hoped this parliament would. land. They fixed the importation price Much was said about the bad system of at eighty shillings ; at which sum they, in E:on and Westminster, where people their great mercy, would allow the people passed ten years of their lives learning to get bread. They had not, indeed, always two languages; but these two languages obtained this sum, but they intended to were effectually taught; the boys did not wring it from the people. if parliament learn much, but they did learn to read an wished to see in what light its conduct old song. Homer and Virgil were good was received, let members look at the

But the parliament, with all different public meetings. Their lordships the teaching it got, did not learn an old and the other house of parliament were song. Their lordships had heard what considered as a body of landlords, who the last parliament had done; and he had the power to make what laws they would now turn to what ministers were pleased, and made use of that power to doing. They were learning too,they levy a tax on the pecple. of the other

— were taking lessons of the noble and learn | House it was said, that the country gened lord on the woolsack, and had not tlemen had entered into an implied condone any thing. They were taking a tract with ministers to support extravagant lesson of doubting and pausing. If in establishments, if ministers would secure riding through the country one saw an them high prices. It was in this manner estate falling to ruin, the fences broken the parliament was spoken and thought of

old songs:


in the country. In this way was the means of those astonishing exertions which extraordinary expenditure of the govern- were called forth in the course of the last ment accounted for. The country gentle war. At the present time, with a taxation men sanctioned a taxation of upwards of exceeding fifty millions, little if any profifty millions a year. This was the cause gress has been made in the reduction of why, in the twelfth year of peace, there the national debt; and, with a peace was no reduction of the national debt ; establishment of twenty millions, nearly and why the peace, or rather war, establish- quadruple that of the former peace, we ments still cost upwards of twenty fear that, from the state of our finances, millions sterling per annum. It seemed this kingdom is very ill prepared to resist as if the object of government was to try the aggressions of foreign states. by experiment, not how cheaply, but how “During the former peace, the prohidearly and costly, government could be bitory system did not apply in practice to carried on. We enjoyed the bad pre- the most important article of produce—to eminence of being the most taxed people, the trade in corn. The ports of Great and having the most expensive govern Britain were then constantly open to the ment, in the world. His Majesty, though admission of foreign wheat at a low and it was so generally allowed that this almost nominal duty, and at no period of enormous taxation was a cause of distress, our history did the landed interest, as well said nothing in his Speech about reducing as the whole community, enjoy greater it. The estimates were to be framed with security and prosperity. a consideration to the exigencies of the The existing laws, which prohibit the public service, but not with any regard to importation of foreign corn, except when the distress of the people. Under this the price of grain shall have risen to an view of the matter, he had drawn up an extravagant height in the home market, Amendment, which he should move should are found to be highly detrimental to the be added to the Address.--His lordship public prosperity. They cause an unnesat down with moving, that the following cessary waste of labour in the cultivation Amendment be added to the Address :- of poor lands; they enhance the cost of

“We trust that a steady adherence to food; they diminish the profits of stock; just and liberal principles of policy will they have a strong tendency to drive prevent à repetition of those distresses capital abroad; they are most injurious to which, in the course of the last ten years, trade, by limiting the beneficial exchange have repeatedly and severely afflicted all of foreign raw produce with the manufacclasses of your Majesty's subjects. tured produce of British industry; they

“We have observed, with the utmost encourage the establishment of rival manuanxiety, those vicissitudes in the state factures in foreign countries; and, lastly, and condition of the landed, commercial, they are unjust, inasmuch as they prevent and manufacturing, interests, those alter the people from obtaining a supply of the nate seasons of prosperity and adversity, of first necessary of life at the cheapest mar. a short and fallacious prosperity followed by ket. . wide-spread calamity and ruin, so unusual “During the former peace, and until and so unnatural in a period of profound the unfortunate era of 1797, the

currency peace. We cannot avoid comparing the of the country was in a fixed and perfect

a condition of all the great leading interests state, being composed, in a large proporof the country during the last ten years of tion, of the lawful gold coin of the realm, peace, and contrasting it with the unin- in its nature not liable to excessive issues terrupted prosperity and comfort enjoyed and sudden contractions. We have since by all classes of our fellow-subjects during endured all the evils arising from a large, the ten years which followed the conclu- and, in many instances, from an insecure sion of the American war. At that period circulation of paper, creating at one time, the civil and military establishments were by an undue extension, an artificial and fixed on the most economical scale of ex- delusive prosperity, and producing at anpense; the advantages of our insular other time, most sudden and severe resituation were duly appreciated; a state of verses, destructive alike to property and peace was then a state also of repose from industry. unnecessary taxation; the wise economy " In the course of ten years of uninterwhich afforded ease to the subject, prepared, rupted peace, we have observed, with the at the same time, for the government the utinost pain, the frequent recurrence of a state of calamity and ruin, unexampled in sary, the difficulties and the distresses the midst of war, and feel convinced that under which the country laboured, yet the the only substantial security for the future magnitude of those difficulties and diswill be found in reducing and retrenching tresses could not be denied. It was not

. the public expenditure, in the full and his wish to exaggerate them, nor could it entire restoration of a secure currency, by be the wish of their lordships to do so; all the removal of all traces of those innova- he wished was, a discreet, sober, and steady tions in our monetary system made in view of those difficulties, in order that 1797, together with such additional secu- not a moment might be lost—and he felt rities as may be necessary to place all that that not a moment

was to be lost-in alterpart of the currency consisting of the pro- ing that system to which he firmly believedall missory notes of private bankers on a the distresses and calamities of the country solid foundation; and, above all, in a re- were to be traced. The difficulties under peal of the Corn-laws, and in the abolition which the country laboured were not to be of all that is still suffered to remain of attributed to any administration in partithat impolitic prohibitory system, which cular--they were wholly attributable to sacrifices the interests of the many to the the system which had subsisted ever since few, and favours the producers at the ex- the year 1793—which, ever since that pense of the great body of consumers, who time, had been working mischief-which are the community at large.”

had twice thrown the country from the The Amendment was put and negatived. highest pitch of prosperity down to the On the question upon the original Address lowest depths of distress. So long as that being put,

system was continued, he was persuaded The Earl of Lauderdale rose, not to the country could never prosper. Nothing, object to the Address, but to say a few he was persuaded, could save the country words on the subject of the Order in from ruin, but an entire alteration of that Council, alluded to in his Majesty's system. Of that system it might be said Speech. He should not have troubled if he might be allowed to use so figurative their lordships, had it not been from what an expression that it had again plunged fell from the noble seconder. His Ma. us into the depths of ruin, from the top of jesty's Speech, in reference to the Order of the wave to which the commercial tempest the Council, said, that it should be laid on had raised us. It would be impossible their lordships' table; and when it was for him in that desultory discussion to laid on the table was the proper time, enter into any detailed views of the subaccording to usage, to take it into consi- ject. He wished, on the present occasion, deration. When that took place, the merely to express his belief and conviction, noble earl opposite would probably move that our commercial and agricultural diffian Address to his Majesty. [The earl of culties arose out of the state of the curLiverpool expressed his dissent.] If the rency of the country, and that to an alternoble earl did not, it was competent for ation in the state of that currency they any other noble lord to do so; and when could alone look for relief. It was the that time came, he should be ready to give disproportion between the paper and the his opinion upon the subject. He wished, metallic currency that had occasioned in consequence of the noble seconder hav- high prices, and produced commercial difing thought proper prematurely, to praise ficulties, which could only be remedied that Order in Council, to guard himself by an open competition in the market, from being supposed to approve of it. He instead of the system of treating with the should be ready to state his opinion when Bank alone, which the government had the proper time came; but it was not yet hitherto pursued. He was persuaded before their lordships, and could not with that the true principle of relief was to be propriety be discussed.

found in the adjustment of the metallic The Duke of Buckingham said, that, and paper currency, in such proportions agreeing, as he did, with the Address, he as experience might prove to be necessary, wished to state, in a very few words, the in order to prevent gold from being driven grounds upon which he gave his assent to out of the country. To restore the curit, and the limits within which he confined rency to that healthy state, and to settle his approbation of it. He could not the proportions which ought to be estabapprove of the policy or propriety of lished between the metallic and paper curpainting in deeper colours than neces- rency, the government ought not to communicate merely with the governor and Such a measure could alone save the company of the Bank of England, but country from ruin, and without it, it would with the merchants and traders of the be in vain to look for a restoration of that city. His feelings on this part of the prosperity and pre-eminence, which this subject had been excited by the manner country once enjoyed above the rest of the in which his Majesty's ministers had acted nations of Europe. on the question of free trade. He could The Earl of Darnley said, he did not not see, nor had he ever been able to see, rise to enter into any discussion of the the reason why the question of the trade merits of the Order in Council, for he in farming should be separated from the agreed that that question could only be question of the other trades and manufac- properly discussed when it came regularly turing interests of the country. What before their lordships; but as the subhad been the principle on which his Ma-1ject had been incidentally mentioned, he jesty's ministers acted in establishing should not do justice to his own feelings, what, in common parlance, was called the if he did not say, that, taking into confree trade of the country? They were sideration the time at which the Order not starting in a fair race with the rest of was issued, the aspect of the crops in IreEurope; for, unfortunately, when the land, and the effect which a deficient amount of taxation under which this harvest was likely to have on the populacountry laboured was taken into consider- tion in that country, his Majesty's ministers ation, it would be found that our manu- were perfectly justified in the measure facturers were wholly unable to compete they had adopted. He would go further, with the foreigner. The country looked and say, that they were not only perfectly to his majesty's ministers for relief, and it justified in adopting that measure, but became absolutely imperative upon them that they would have deserved reproto bring forward some specific measure, in bation if they had not adopted it. The order to effect that relief. His Majesty's calamity anticipated had, by the bounty ministers possessed the confidence of the of Providence, been averted; but minister's country, and in return for that confidence were not the less entitled to the approbait was hoped, expected, and believed, that tion of the country, for mitigating the they would bring forward some measure expected evil. For his own part, he ---not to provide for high or low prices, heartily approved and commended the for it was neither the interest nor the wish measure. of the farmer to have high prices, but to Lord Clifden said, that ministers were place the trade in corn on the same footing perfectly justified in issuing the Order in as the other trades and manufactures of the Council, though, by a fortunate dispencountry, protected only by such duties as sation of Providence, the rains, which had might enable the British farmer to com- fallen in August, had averted the expected pete with the foreigner. Every man who calamity. The failure of the potatoe crops knew any thing of this important subject, in Ireland would have made the price of knew well that the farmers did not wish oats and barley enormous. No rents for high prices; what they wanted was, could possibly have been paid under such not high prices, but stability of prices ; circumstances; the farmers must have such a stability as might enable them, in eaten their rents, for they could not be common with other traders, to buy and expected to starve, in order to pay their sell their commodities with confidence and landlords. Ministers had his hearty security. He repeated, that what the thanks for the provident and judicious country looked for—and he wished again measure they had adopted to mitigate a and again to impress it on his Majesty's calamity which the bounty of Providence ministers — was, that they would bring had happily averted. forward some specific measures which The Earl of Liverpool said, he did not might attain the great end of putting our rise for the purpose of entering into the commercial, manufacturing, and agri- discussion of any of the topics which the cultural, interests on the same footing of noble lord opposite had introduced into free trade, regulated by such protecting his amendment. The Address had, induties as would enable them to enter into deed, been framed in such a way as to fair competition with the foreigner. All render any observations on the topics inmeasures short of this would be inadequate troduced by the noble lord unnecessary, to relieve the distresses of the country. and many of those topics were of such an extent, and such a character, that if any | Corn-laws. Looking to the peculiar ciradministration had embodied their opinions cumstances under which parliament was upon them, in a Speech from the Throne, assembled, and to the attendance which they would have justly subjected themselves was to be expected at that period of the to the censure of the House, for having pro- year, it certainly would not be consistent posed them in so exceptionable a shape, with what the government owed to the on the first day of the session, without country, if, in a parliament convened in any previous notice. With respect to the the month of November for a specific observations which had fallen from the object, they were to bring forward so exnoble earl, he could only say, that the tensive and impartant a measure. He Address did not pledge the House to any now gave notice, and he wished it to be opinion of the propriety of the Order in distinctly understood, that at the earliest Council, but merely to an early considera- convenient day after the recess, it was his tion of the propriety of that measure. It intention to call the attention of that had not been the usual course to move House to the important subject of the an Address upon the Order in Council. Corn-laws. The Order must be followed by an act of The Address was then agreed to nem. indemnity, in some degree conveying an diss. approbation of the measure; and when The Earl of Liverpool moved, that the that bill came regularly before the House, noble earl who had so long acted as it would be the fit time to discuss the pro- Chairman of their committees, with so priety of the measure. He admitted, much honour to himself, and benefit to the however, that as soon as the Order should country, should continue to take the Chair be laid upon the table of the House, it in all committees of that House. would be open to any member either to The Lord Chancellor said, the House move an Address

upon it, or to make any fully appreciated the services of the noble other motion he might think proper. It earl, and no man was more sensible than was not necessary to say anything more himself of the able manner in which he on this subject, but he would remind their had discharged the duties of the office. lordships of one fact, which ought not to The Earl of Shaftesbury expressed his be forgotten--though facts of this kind high sense of the approbation which his were apt to be forgotten, when a time of endeavours to discharge faithfully the difficulty and danger was past—that there duties of the office had received from was about one fortnight in the course of their lordships, and relied upon the indulthe last summer, as alarming with respect gence and assistance of the House to to the produce of the earth, as any period enable him to deserve a continuance of that had ever been remembered. He did that approbation. not mean to rest the propriety of the Order The motion was agreed to. in Council upon that fact alone, but he begged to call to the recollection of the HOUSE OF COMMONS, House what was the state of this country with respect to the crops towards the end

Tuesday, November 21. of August, and the beginning of September,

ADDRESS ON THE King's Speech at and what change took place, fortunately THE OPENING OF THE SEssion.] The for this country, and still more for Speaker acquainted the House, that the tunately for Ireland, in the course of House had been in the House of Peers, the ensuing weeks. Having said thus where his Majesty had delivered a most much, it was not his intention to make gracious Speech to both Houses of Parany observations on what had been thrown liament, and of which, to prevent misout by the noble duke, with respect to the takes, he had obtained a copy. After the important subjects of the currency and the Speaker had read the Speech, Corn-laws. From the noble duke's opinions

The Hon. T. Liddell said, that, in perwith respect to the currency, he had the forming the task which had been allotted misfortune entirely to differ. This, however, him, of moving the thanks of that House was not the moment for entering into the dis- to his Majesty, for his Majesty's most eussion of that subject; neither was it the gracious Speech from the Throne, he time for discussing another important sub- could not deny that he felt a considerable ject, which would require the most serious degree of difficulty. If the task of adconsideration of parliament; namely, the dressing that House for the first time was,


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